Irene Xagoraraki, Ph.D.
Professor of Environmental Engineering
Journal Publications:

McCall C., Wu H., O’Brien E., Xagoraraki I. (2021) Assessment of Enteric Viruses During a Hepatitis Outbreak in Detroit MI Using Wastewater Surveillance and Metagenomic Analysis, Journal of Applied Microbiology

Miyani B., McCall C., Xagoraraki I. (2020) High Abundance of Human Herpesvirus 8 in Wastewater from a Large Urban Area, Journal of Applied Microbiology, 1455: 1-10

Miyani B., Fonoll X., Norton J., Mehrotra A., Xagoraraki I. (2020) SARS-CoV-2 in Detroit Wastewater. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 146(11): 06020004

McCall C., Wu H., Miyani B., Xagoraraki I. (2020) Identification of Multiple Potential Viral Diseases in a Large Urban Center using Wastewater Surveillance. Water Research, 184: 116160

O’Brien E., Xagoraraki I. (2020) Removal of Viruses in Membrane Bioreactors. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 146(7): 03120007

O’Brien E., Xagoraraki I. (2019) Understanding Temporal and Spatial Variations of Viral Disease in the US: The Need for a One-Health-Based Data Collection and Analysis Approach. One Health, 8: 100105 1-12

O’Brien E., Xagoraraki I. (2019) A Water-Focused One-Health Approach for Early Detection and Prevention of Viral Outbreaks, One Health, 100094 1-9.

McCall C., Xagoraraki I. (2019) Metagenomic Approaches for Detecting Viral Diversity in Water Environments, Journal of Environmental Engineering, 145(8): 04019039 1-9

Casabuena A., Shi H., Yin Z., Xagoraraki I., Tarabara V. (2019) Human Adenovirus 40 removal in a side-stream membrane bioreactor. Technical Note, Journal of Environmental Engineering,  145(5): 06019004 1-6

Long D.T. Pearson A.L., Voice T.C., Polanco-Rodriguez A.G., Sanchez-Rodriguez C., Xagoraraki I., Concha-Valdez F., Puc-Franco M., Lopec-Cetz R., Rzotkiewicz A. (2018) Influence of rainy season and land use on drinking water quality in a karst landscape, State of Yucatan, Mexico. Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 98, pp. 265-277

Yin Z., Voice T.C., Tarabara V.V, Xagoraraki I. (2018) Sorption of Human Adenovirus to Wastewater Solids. Technical Note Journal of Environmental Engineering,  144(11): 06018008 1-6

Wu H., Oun A., Kline-Robach R., Xagoraraki I. (2018) Microbial Pollution Characterization at a TMDL Site in Michigan: Effect of Hydrological Conditions on Pollution Loading. Journal of Great Lakes Research, Vol. 44, pp. 421-427

Wu H., Oun A., Kline-Robach R., Xagoraraki I.(2018) Microbial pollution characterization at a TMDL site in Michigan: Source identification Journal of Great Lakes Research,  Vo. 44, pp. 412-420

Guo B., Snow S.D., Starr B.J., Xagoraraki I., Tarabara V.V.(2018) Viral diversity and abundance in polluted waters in Kampala, Uganda, Separation and Purification Technology.,  Vol. 193, pp. 193-201

McCall C., Xagoraraki I., (2017) Comparative Study of Sequence Aligners for Detecting Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterial Metagenomes. Letters in Applied Microbiology,  Vol. 66, pp. 162-168

O'Brien E., Nakyazze J. Wu H., Kiwanuka N., Cunningham W., Kaneene J.B., Xagoraraki I. (2017) Viral diversity and abundance in polluted waters in Kampala, Uganda, Water Research,  Vol. 127, pp. 41-49

O'Brien E., Munir M., Marsh T., Heran M., Lesage G., Tarabara V.V., Xagoraraki I. (2017) Diversity of DNA viruses in effluents of membrane bioreactors in Traverse City, MI (USA) and La Grande Motte (France), Water research, Vol. 111, pp. 338-345

Oun A., Yin Z., Munir M., Xagoraraki I. (2017) Microbial pollution characterization of water and sediment at two beaches in Saginaw Bay, Michigan, Journal of Great Lakes Research, Vol. 43 (3), pp. 64-72

Long D.T., Voice T.C., Xagaroraki I., Chen A., Wu H., Lee E., Oun A., Xing F. (2017) Patterns of c-q hysteresis loops and within an integrative pollutograph for selected inorganic and organic solutes and E. coli in an urban salted watershed during winter-early spring periods, Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 83, pp. 93-107

Shi H., Xagoraraki I., Parent K.N., Bruening M.L., Tarabara V.V. (2016) Elution is a critical step for human adenovirus 40 recovery from tap and surface water by crossflow ultrafiltration. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, AEM. 00870-16

Yin Z.. Tarabara V.V., Xagoraraki I. (2016) Effect of Pressure Relaxation and Membrane Backwash on Adenovirus Removal in a Membrane Bioreactor. Water Research, Vol. 88, pp. 750-757

Lu R. , Li Q., Yin Z, Xagoraraki I., Tarabara V.V., Nguyen T.H. (2016) Effect of Virus Influent Concentration on Its Removal by Microfiltration: The Case of Human Adenovirus 2. Journal of Membrane Science,
Vol. 497, pp. 120-127

Yin Z., Tarabara V.V., Xagoraraki I. (2015) Human Adenovirus Removal by Hollow Fiber Membranes: Effect of Membrane Fouling by Suspended and Dissolved Matter. Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 482, pp. 120-127


Guo B., Pasco E.V., Xagoraraki I., Tarabara V.V. (2015) Virus Removal and Inactivation in a Hybrid Microfiltration-UV Process with a Photocatalytic Membrane. Separation and Purification Technology, Vol 149, pp. 245-264

Oun A., Kumar A., Harrigan T., Angelakis A., Xagoraraki I. (2014) Effects of Biosolids and Manure Application on Microbial Water Quality in Rural Areas in the US. Water, Special Issue on Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Vol. 6, pp. 3701-3723

Xagoraraki I., Yin Z., Svambayev Z. (2014) Fate of Viruses in Water Systems. Journal of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 140, No. 7, pp. 04014020 1- 18

Pasco E., Shi H., Xagoraraki I., Hashsham S, Parent K., Bruening M., Tarabara V. (2014). Polyelectrolyte multilayers as anti-adhesive membrane coatings for virus concentration and recovery. Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 469, pp. 140-150


Wong K., Voice T., Xagoraraki I. (2013) Effect of Organic Carbon on Sorption of Human Adenovirus to Soil Particles and Laboratory Containers. Water Research, Vol. 47, pp. 3339-3446

Wong K., Harrigan T., Xagoraraki I. (2012) Leaching and Ponding of Viral Contaminants Following Land Application of Biosolids on Sandy-Loam Soil. Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 112, pp. 79-86

Kumar A., Wong K., Xagoraraki I. (2012) Effect of Detection Methods on Risk Estimates of Exposure to Biosolids-Associated Human Enteric Viruses. Risk Analysis, Vol. 32, pp. 916-929

Gao P., Munir M., Xagoraraki I. (2012) Correlation of Tetracycline and Sulfonamide Antibiotics with Corresponding Resistance Genes and Resistant Bacteria in a Conventional Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 421-422, pp. 173-183

Gao P. Ding Y., Li Hui, Xagoraraki I. (2012) Occurrence of Pharmaceuticals in a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant: Mass Balance and Removal Mechanisms. Chemosphere, Vol. 88, pp. 17-24

Wong K., Xagoraraki I. (2012) A Perspective on the Prevalence of DNA Enteric Virus Genomes in Anaerobic-Digested Biological Wastes. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 184, pp. 5009-5016

Aslan A., Xagoraraki I., Simmons F., Rose J., Dorevitch S. (2011) Occurrence of Adenovirus and Other Enteric Viruses in Limited-Contact Freshwater Recreational Areas and Bathing Waters. Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 111, pp. 1250-1261

Simmons F., Xagoraraki I. (2011) Release of Infectious Human Enteric Viruses by Full-Scale Wastewater Utilities. Water Research, Vol. 45, pp. 3590-3598

Wong K., Xagoraraki I. (2011) Evaluating the Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Adenovirus and Polyomavirus in Bovine Waste for Microbial Source Tracking. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 90, pp. 1521-1526

Simmons F., Kuo D., Xagoraraki I. (2011) Removal of Human Enteric Viruses by a Full-Scale Membrane Bioreactor During Municipal Wastewater Processing. Water Research, Vol. 45, pp. 2739-2750

Srinivasan S., Aslan A., Xagoraraki I., Alocilja E., Rose J.B. (2011) Escherichia coli, Enterococci, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron qPCR Signals Through Wastewater and Septage Treatment. Water Research, Vol. 45, pp. 2561-2572

Ding J., Zhang W., Gu C., Xagoraraki I., Li H. (2011) Determination of Pharmaceuticals in Biosolids using Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1218, pp. 10-16

Munir M., Xagoraraki I. (2011) Levels of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Manure, Biosolids, and Fertilized Soil. Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 40, pp. 248-255

Munir M., Wong K., Xagoraraki I. (2011) Release of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Genes in the Effluent and Biosolids of Five Wastewater Utilities in Michigan. Water Research, Vol. 45, pp. 681-693

Kumar A., Chang B., Xagoraraki I. (2010) Human Health Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals in Water: Issues and Challenges Ahead. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Special Issue on Drinking Water and Health, Vol. 7, pp. 3929-3953

Kumar A. Xagoraraki I. (2010) Pharmaceuticals, Personal Care Products and Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in U.S. Surface and Finished Drinking Waters: A Proposed Ranking System. Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 408, pp. 5972-5989

Wong K., Onan B., Xagoraraki I. (2010) Quantification of Enteric Viruses, Pathogen Indicators, and Salmonella Bacteria in Class B Anaerobically Digested Biosolids by Culture and Molecular Methods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 76, No. 19, pp. 6441-6448

Wong K., Xagoraraki I. (2010). Quantitative PCR Assays to Survey the Bovine Adenovirus Levels in Environmental Samples. Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 109, pp. 605-612

Kumar A., Xagoraraki I. (2010). Human Health Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals in Water: An Uncertainty Analysis for Meprobamate, Carbamazepine, and Phenytoin. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Vol. 57, pp. 146-156

Kuo D., Simmons F., Blair S., Hart E., Rose J.B., Xagoraraki I. (2010). Assessment of Human Adenovirus Removal in a Full-Scale Membrane Bioreactor Treating Municipal Wastewater. Water Research, Vol. 44, pp. 1520-1530

Fong T.T., Mantha P., Xagoraraki I., Rose J.B. (2010). Quantitative Detection of Human Adenoviruses in Wastewater and Combined Sewer Overflows Influencing a Michigan River. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 76, pp. 715-723

Kuo D., Simmons F., Xagoraraki I. (2009). A New Set of PCR Assays for the Identification of Multiple Human Adenovirus Species in Environmental Samples. Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 107, pp. 1219-1229

Wong K., Xagoraraki I., Wallace J., Bickert W., Srinivasan S., Rose J.B. (2009). Removal of Viruses and Indicators by Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor Treating Animal Waste. Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 38, pp. 1694-1699

Wong M., Kumar L., Jenkings T., Xagoraraki I., Mantha P., Rose J. (2009). Evaluation of Public Health Risks at Recreational Beaches in Lake Michigan via Detection of Enteric Viruses and a Human-Specific Bacteriological Marker. Water Research, Vol. 43, pp. 1137-1149

Srinivasan S. Harrington G., Xagoraraki I., Goel R. (2008) Factors Affecting Bulk to Total Bactreria Ratio in Drinking Water Distribution Systems. Water Research, Vol. 42, pp. 3393-3404

Xagoraraki I., Hullman R., Song W., Li H., Voice T. (2008). Effect of pH on Degradation of Acetominophen and Production of 1,4-Benzoquinone in Water Chlorination. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology - AQUA, Special Issue on Oxidation Processes for Drinking Water, Vol. 57, No. 6, pp. 381-390

Xagoraraki I., Kuo D., Wong K., Wong M., Rose J.B. (2007) Occurence of Human Adenoviruses in Two Great Lake Recreational Beaches. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol.73, No. 24, pp. 7874-7881

Xagoraraki, I., Harrington G.W., Zulliger K., Zeier B., Krick W., Karner D.A, Standridge J.H., Westrick J. (2006). Inactivation Kinetics of the Cyanobacterial Toxin Microcystin-LR by Free Chlorine. Journal of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 132, No. 7, pp. 818-823

Xagoraraki, I., Zulliger K., Harrington G.W, Zeier B., Krick W., Karner D.A. (2006). Ct Values Required for Degradation of Microcystin-LR by Free Chlorine. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology – AQUA, Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 233-245

Xagoraraki I., Harrington G.W., (2004). Zeta Potential, Dissolved Organic Carbon and Removal of Cryptosporidium Oocysts by Alum Coagulation. Journal of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 12, pp. 1424-1432

Xagoraraki I., Harrington G.W., Assavasilavasukul P., Standridge J.H., (2004). Removal of Emerging Waterborne Pathogens by Pilot-Scale Conventional Treatment. Journal American Water Works Association, Vol. 96, No. 5, pp. 102-113

Harrington G.W., Xagoraraki I., Assavasilavasukul P., Standridge J.H., (2003). Effect of Filtration Conditions on Removal of Emerging Waterborne Pathogens. Journal American Water Works Association, Vol. 95, No.12, pp. 95-104