Irene Xagoraraki, Ph.D.
Professor of Environmental Engineering
Zhao, L., Faust, R. A., David, R. E., Norton, J., & Xagoraraki, I. (2024). Tracking the Time Lag between SARS-CoV-2 Wastewater Concentrations and Three COVID-19 Clinical Metrics: A 21-Month Case Study in the Tricounty Detroit Area, Michigan. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 150(1), 06023004. DOI: 10.1061/JOEEDU.EEENG-7509

Li, Y., Miyani, B., Childs, K. L., Shiu, S. H., & Xagoraraki, I. (2023). Effect of wastewater collection and concentration methods on assessment of viral diversity. Science of the Total Environment, 908, 168128. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.168128

Gentry, Z., Zhao, L., Faust, R. A., David, R. E., Norton, J., & Xagoraraki, I. (2023). Wastewater surveillance beyond COVID-19: a ranking system for communicable disease testing in the tri-county Detroit area, Michigan, USA. Frontiers in Public Health, 11, 1178515. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2023.1178515

Zhao, L., Zou, Y., David, R. E., Withington, S., McFarlane, S., Faust, R. A., ... & Xagoraraki, I. (2023). Simple methods for early warnings of COVID-19 surges: Lessons learned from 21 months of wastewater and clinical data collection in Detroit, Michigan, United States. Science of the Total Environment, 864, 161152. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.161152

Zhao, L., Geng, Q., Corchis-Scott, R., McKay, R. M., Norton, J., & Xagoraraki, I. (2023). Targeting a free viral fraction enhances the early alert potential of wastewater surveillance for SARS-CoV-2: a methods comparison spanning the transition between delta and omicron variants in a large urban center. Frontiers in Public Health, 11. DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2023.1140441

Xagoraraki I. (2022) Biotechnology and Genetic Data: In: Youth Guide on Biotechnology: How can we ethically create a sustainable future using biotechnology? Smithsonian Science for Global Goals, Part 5 pp, 186-205. https://ssec.si.edu/biotechnology

Li Y., Miyani B., Zhao L., Spooner M., Gentry Z., Zou Y., Rhodes G., Li H., Kaye A., Norton J., Xagoraraki I. (2022) Surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 in nine neighborhood sewersheds in Detroit Tri-County area, United States: Assessing per capita SARS-CoV-2 estimations and COVID-19 incidence, Science of the Total Environment, 851: 158350. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.158350 

Zhao L., Zou Y., Yabing Li, Miyani B., Spooner M., Gentry Z., Jacobi S., David R.E., Withington S., McFarlane S., Faust R., Sheets J., Kaye A., Broz J., Gosine A., Mobley P., Busch A.W.U., Norton J., Xagoraraki I. (2022) Five-week warning of COVID-19 peaks prior to the Omicron surge in Detroit, Michigan using wastewater surveillance, Science of the Total Environment, 844: 157040. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157040

Ahmed et al. (2022) Minimizing errors in RT-PCR detection and quantification of SARS-CoV-2 RNA for wastewater surveillance, Science of the Total Environment, 805: 149877. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.149877

Miyani B., Zhao L., Spooner M., Buch S., Gentry Z., Mehrotra A., Norton J. Xagoraraki I. (2021) Early Warnings of COVID-19 Second Wave in Detroit MI, Journal of Environmental Engineering, 147(8) 06021004. DOI: 10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0001907

McCall C., Wu H., O’Brien E., Xagoraraki I. (2021) Assessment of Enteric Viruses During a Hepatitis Outbreak in Detroit MI Using Wastewater Surveillance and Metagenomic Analysis, Journal of Applied Microbiology. DOI: 10.1111/jam.15027

Xagoraraki I., O’Brien E. (2020) Wastewater-Based Epidemiology for Early Detection of Viral Outbreaks. (O’Bannon D., Editor) In: Women in Water Quality: Investigators by Prominent Female Engineers, Spring Nature, Switzerland. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-17819-2_5

Xagoraraki, I. (2020). Can we predict viral outbreaks using wastewater surveillance?. 
Journal of Environmental Engineering146(11), 01820003. DOI: 10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0001831

Miyani B., McCall C., Xagoraraki I. (2020) High Abundance of Human Herpesvirus 8 in Wastewater from a Large Urban Area, Journal of Applied Microbiology, 1455: 1-10. DOI: 10.1111/jam.14895

Miyani B., Fonoll X., Norton J., Mehrotra A., Xagoraraki I. (2020) SARS-CoV-2 in Detroit Wastewater. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 146(11): 06020004. DOI: 10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0001830

McCall C., Wu H., Miyani B., Xagoraraki I. (2020) Identification of Multiple Potential Viral Diseases in a Large Urban Center using Wastewater Surveillance. Water Research, 184: 116160. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2020.116160

O’Brien E., Xagoraraki I. (2020) Removal of Viruses in Membrane Bioreactors. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 146(7): 03120007. DOI: 10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0001743

O’Brien E., Xagoraraki I. (2019) Understanding Temporal and Spatial Variations of Viral Disease in the US: The Need for a One-Health-Based Data Collection and Analysis Approach. One Health, 8: 100105 1-12. DOI: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2019.100105

O’Brien E., Xagoraraki I. (2019) A Water-Focused One-Health Approach for Early Detection and Prevention of Viral Outbreaks, One Health, 100094 1-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2019.100094

McCall C., Xagoraraki I. (2019) Metagenomic Approaches for Detecting Viral Diversity in Water Environments, Journal of Environmental Engineering, 145(8): 04019039 1-9. DOI: 10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0001548

Casabuena A., Shi H., Yin Z., Xagoraraki I., Tarabara V. (2019) Human Adenovirus 40 removal in a side-stream membrane bioreactor. Technical Note, Journal of Environmental Engineering,  145(5): 06019004 1-6. DOI: 10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0001525

Long D.T. Pearson A.L., Voice T.C., Polanco-Rodriguez A.G., Sanchez-Rodriguez C., Xagoraraki I., Concha-Valdez F., Puc-Franco M., Lopec-Cetz R., Rzotkiewicz A. (2018) Influence of rainy season and land use on drinking water quality in a karst landscape, State of Yucatan, Mexico. Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 98, pp. 265-277. DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2018.09.020

Yin Z., Voice T.C., Tarabara V.V, Xagoraraki I. (2018) Sorption of Human Adenovirus to Wastewater Solids. Technical Note Journal of Environmental Engineering,  144(11): 06018008 1-6. DOI: 10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0001463

Wu H., Oun A., Kline-Robach R., Xagoraraki I. (2018) Microbial Pollution Characterization at a TMDL Site in Michigan: Effect of Hydrological Conditions on Pollution Loading. Journal of Great Lakes Research, Vol. 44, pp. 421-427. DOI: 10.1016/j.jglr.2018.02.007

Wu H., Oun A., Kline-Robach R., Xagoraraki I.(2018) Microbial pollution characterization at a TMDL site in Michigan: Source identification Journal of Great Lakes Research,  Vo. 44, pp. 412-420. DOI: 10.1016/j.jglr.2018.02.006

Guo, B., Snow, S. D., Starr, B. J., Xagoraraki, I., & Tarabara, V. V. (2018). Photocatalytic inactivation of human adenovirus 40: Effect of dissolved organic matter and prefiltration. Separation and Purification Technology, 193, 193-201. DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2017.11.012

Kuo D.H.W., Xagoraraki I. (2017) Contaminants Associated with Drinking Water. In: The International Encyclopedia of Public Health, 2nd edition (Quah, S.R. and Cockerham, W.C., Editors). Vol. 2, pp. 148–158DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-803678-5.00489-6

McCall C., Xagoraraki I., (2017) Comparative Study of Sequence Aligners for Detecting Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterial Metagenomes. Letters in Applied Microbiology,  Vol. 66, pp. 162-168. DOI: 10.1111/lam.12842

O'Brien E., Nakyazze J. Wu H., Kiwanuka N., Cunningham W., Kaneene J.B., Xagoraraki I. (2017) Viral diversity and abundance in polluted waters in Kampala, Uganda, Water Research,  Vol. 127, pp. 41-49. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.09.063

O'Brien E., Munir M., Marsh T., Heran M., Lesage G., Tarabara V.V., Xagoraraki I. (2017) Diversity of DNA viruses in effluents of membrane bioreactors in Traverse City, MI (USA) and La Grande Motte (France), Water research, Vol. 111, pp. 338-345. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.01.014

Oun A., Yin Z., Munir M., Xagoraraki I. (2017) Microbial pollution characterization of water and sediment at two beaches in Saginaw Bay, Michigan, Journal of Great Lakes Research, Vol. 43 (3), pp. 64-72. DOI: 10.1016/j.jglr.2017.01.014

Long D.T., Voice T.C., Xagaroraki I., Chen A., Wu H., Lee E., Oun A., Xing F. (2017) Patterns of c-q hysteresis loops and within an integrative pollutograph for selected inorganic and organic solutes and E. coli in an urban salted watershed during winter-early spring periods, Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 83, pp. 93-107. DOI: 10.1016/j.apgeochem.2017.03.002

Shi H., Xagoraraki I., Parent K.N., Bruening M.L., Tarabara V.V. (2016) Elution is a critical step for human adenovirus 40 recovery from tap and surface water by crossflow ultrafiltration. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, AEM. 00870-16. DOI: 10.1128/aem.00870-16

Yin Z.. Tarabara V.V., Xagoraraki I. (2016) Effect of Pressure Relaxation and Membrane Backwash on Adenovirus Removal in a Membrane Bioreactor. Water Research, Vol. 88, pp. 750-757. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2015.10.066

Lu R. , Li Q., Yin Z, Xagoraraki I., Tarabara V.V., Nguyen T.H. (2016) Effect of Virus Influent Concentration on Its Removal by Microfiltration: The Case of Human Adenovirus 2. Journal of Membrane Science,
Vol. 497, pp. 120-127. DOI: 10.1016/j.memsci.2015.08.065

Yin Z., Xagoraraki I. (2015) Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs) for Water Reuse in the United States. In: The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry, Volume title: Advanced Treatment Technologies for Urban Wastewater Reuse, (Fatta-Kassinos D., Dionysiou D., Kümmerer K., Editors). Springer International, Switzerland. DOI: 10.1007/698_2014_324

Yin Z., Tarabara V.V., Xagoraraki I. (2015) Human Adenovirus Removal by Hollow Fiber Membranes: Effect of Membrane Fouling by Suspended and Dissolved Matter. Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 482, pp. 120-127. DOI: 10.1016/j.memsci.2015.02.028


Guo B., Pasco E.V., Xagoraraki I., Tarabara V.V. (2015) Virus Removal and Inactivation in a Hybrid Microfiltration-UV Process with a Photocatalytic Membrane. Separation and Purification Technology, Vol 149, pp. 245-264. DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2015.05.039

Oun A., Kumar A., Harrigan T., Angelakis A., Xagoraraki I. (2014) Effects of Biosolids and Manure Application on Microbial Water Quality in Rural Areas in the US. Water, Special Issue on Wastewater Treatment and Reuse, Vol. 6, pp. 3701-3723. DOI: 10.3390/w6123701

Xagoraraki I., Yin Z., Svambayev Z. (2014) Fate of Viruses in Water Systems. Journal of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 140, No. 7, pp. 04014020 1- 18. DOI: 10.1061/(asce)ee.1943-7870.0000827

Pasco E., Shi H., Xagoraraki I., Hashsham S, Parent K., Bruening M., Tarabara V. (2014). Polyelectrolyte multilayers as anti-adhesive membrane coatings for virus concentration and recovery. Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 469, pp. 140-150. DOI: 10.1016/j.memsci.2014.06.032


Wong K., Voice T., Xagoraraki I. (2013) Effect of Organic Carbon on Sorption of Human Adenovirus to Soil Particles and Laboratory Containers. Water Research, Vol. 47, pp. 3339-3446. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2013.03.029

Wong K., Harrigan T., Xagoraraki I. (2012) Leaching and Ponding of Viral Contaminants Following Land Application of Biosolids on Sandy-Loam Soil. Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 112, pp. 79-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.07.005

Kumar A., Wong K., Xagoraraki I. (2012) Effect of Detection Methods on Risk Estimates of Exposure to Biosolids-Associated Human Enteric Viruses. Risk Analysis, Vol. 32, pp. 916-929. DOI: 10.1111/j.1539-6924.2011.01716.x

Gao P., Munir M., Xagoraraki I. (2012) Correlation of Tetracycline and Sulfonamide Antibiotics with Corresponding Resistance Genes and Resistant Bacteria in a Conventional Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant. Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 421-422, pp. 173-183. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.01.061

Gao P. Ding Y., Li Hui, Xagoraraki I. (2012) Occurrence of Pharmaceuticals in a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant: Mass Balance and Removal Mechanisms. Chemosphere, Vol. 88, pp. 17-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.02.017

Wong K., Xagoraraki I. (2012) A Perspective on the Prevalence of DNA Enteric Virus Genomes in Anaerobic-Digested Biological Wastes. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 184, pp. 5009-5016. DOI: 10.1007/s10661-011-2316-z

Aslan A., Xagoraraki I., Simmons F., Rose J., Dorevitch S. (2011) Occurrence of Adenovirus and Other Enteric Viruses in Limited-Contact Freshwater Recreational Areas and Bathing Waters. Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 111, pp. 1250-1261. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.05130.x

Simmons F., Xagoraraki I. (2011) Release of Infectious Human Enteric Viruses by Full-Scale Wastewater Utilities. Water Research, Vol. 45, pp. 3590-3598. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2011.04.001

Wong K., Xagoraraki I. (2011) Evaluating the Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Adenovirus and Polyomavirus in Bovine Waste for Microbial Source Tracking. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Vol. 90, pp. 1521-1526. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-011-3156-z

Simmons F., Kuo D., Xagoraraki I. (2011) Removal of Human Enteric Viruses by a Full-Scale Membrane Bioreactor During Municipal Wastewater Processing. Water Research, Vol. 45, pp. 2739-2750. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2011.02.001

Srinivasan S., Aslan A., Xagoraraki I., Alocilja E., Rose J.B. (2011) Escherichia coli, Enterococci, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron qPCR Signals Through Wastewater and Septage Treatment. Water Research, Vol. 45, pp. 2561-2572. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2011.02.010

Ding J., Zhang W., Gu C., Xagoraraki I., Li H. (2011) Determination of Pharmaceuticals in Biosolids using Accelerated Solvent Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1218, pp. 10-16. DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2010.10.112

Munir M., Xagoraraki I. (2011) Levels of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Manure, Biosolids, and Fertilized Soil. Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 40, pp. 248-255. DOI: 10.2134/jeq2010.0209

Munir M., Wong K., Xagoraraki I. (2011) Release of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Genes in the Effluent and Biosolids of Five Wastewater Utilities in Michigan. Water Research, Vol. 45, pp. 681-693. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2010.08.033

Cupples A., Rose J.B., Xagoraraki I. (2010) New Molecular Methods for Detection of Waterborne Pathogens. In: Environmental Microbiology (Mitchell R., Gu J.D., Editors). Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ. DOI: 10.1002/9780470495117.ch3

Kumar A., Chang B., Xagoraraki I. (2010) Human Health Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals in Water: Issues and Challenges Ahead. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, Special Issue on Drinking Water and Health, Vol. 7, pp. 3929-3953. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7113929

Kumar A. Xagoraraki I. (2010) Pharmaceuticals, Personal Care Products and Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals in U.S. Surface and Finished Drinking Waters: A Proposed Ranking System. Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 408, pp. 5972-5989. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2010.08.048

Wong K., Onan B., Xagoraraki I. (2010) Quantification of Enteric Viruses, Pathogen Indicators, and Salmonella Bacteria in Class B Anaerobically Digested Biosolids by Culture and Molecular Methods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 76, No. 19, pp. 6441-6448. DOI: 10.1128/aem.02685-09

Wong K., Xagoraraki I. (2010). Quantitative PCR Assays to Survey the Bovine Adenovirus Levels in Environmental Samples. Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 109, pp. 605-612. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2010.04684.x

Kumar A., Xagoraraki I. (2010). Human Health Risk Assessment of Pharmaceuticals in Water: An Uncertainty Analysis for Meprobamate, Carbamazepine, and Phenytoin. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Vol. 57, pp. 146-156. DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2010.02.002

Kuo D., Simmons F., Blair S., Hart E., Rose J.B., Xagoraraki I. (2010). Assessment of Human Adenovirus Removal in a Full-Scale Membrane Bioreactor Treating Municipal Wastewater. Water Research, Vol. 44, pp. 1520-1530. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2009.10.039

Fong T.T., Mantha P., Xagoraraki I., Rose J.B. (2010). Quantitative Detection of Human Adenoviruses in Wastewater and Combined Sewer Overflows Influencing a Michigan River. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 76, pp. 715-723. DOI: 10.1128/aem.01316-09

Kuo D., Simmons F., Xagoraraki I. (2009). A New Set of PCR Assays for the Identification of Multiple Human Adenovirus Species in Environmental Samples. Journal of Applied Microbiology, Vol. 107, pp. 1219-1229. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04300.x

Wong K., Xagoraraki I., Wallace J., Bickert W., Srinivasan S., Rose J.B. (2009). Removal of Viruses and Indicators by Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor Treating Animal Waste. Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 38, pp. 1694-1699. DOI: 10.2134/jeq2008.0232

Wong M., Kumar L., Jenkings T., Xagoraraki I., Mantha P., Rose J. (2009). Evaluation of Public Health Risks at Recreational Beaches in Lake Michigan via Detection of Enteric Viruses and a Human-Specific Bacteriological Marker. Water Research, Vol. 43, pp. 1137-1149. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2008.11.051

Xagoraraki I., Kuo D. (2008) Water Pollution: Emerging Contaminants Associated with Drinking Water. In: International Encyclopedia of Public Health (Heggenhougen H.K., Editor), Vol. 6, pp. 539-550. Academic Press, San Diego. DOI: 10.1016/b978-012373960-5.00292-6

Srinivasan S. Harrington G., Xagoraraki I., Goel R. (2008) Factors Affecting Bulk to Total Bactreria Ratio in Drinking Water Distribution Systems. Water Research, Vol. 42, pp. 3393-3404. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2008.04.025

Xagoraraki I., Hullman R., Song W., Li H., Voice T. (2008). Effect of pH on Degradation of Acetominophen and Production of 1,4-Benzoquinone in Water Chlorination. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology - AQUA, Special Issue on Oxidation Processes for Drinking Water, Vol. 57, No. 6, pp. 381-390. DOI: 10.2166/aqua.2008.095

Wong, M., Xagoraraki, I., Rose J.B. (2007) Recent Advances and Future Needs in Environmental Virology – Chapter 13 In: Human Viruses in Water, (Bosch A., Editor), Perspectives in Medical Virology Series. Elsevier, Amsterdam. DOI: 10.1016/s0168-7069(07)17013-0

Xagoraraki I., Kuo D., Wong K., Wong M., Rose J.B. (2007) Occurence of Human Adenoviruses in Two Great Lake Recreational Beaches. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol.73, No. 24, pp. 7874-7881. DOI: 10.1128/aem.01239-07

Xagoraraki, I., Harrington G.W., Zulliger K., Zeier B., Krick W., Karner D.A, Standridge J.H., Westrick J. (2006). Inactivation Kinetics of the Cyanobacterial Toxin Microcystin-LR by Free Chlorine. Journal of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 132, No. 7, pp. 818-823. DOI: 10.1061/(asce)0733-9372(2006)132:7(818)

Xagoraraki, I., Zulliger K., Harrington G.W, Zeier B., Krick W., Karner D.A. (2006). Ct Values Required for Degradation of Microcystin-LR by Free Chlorine. Journal of Water Supply: Research and Technology – AQUA, Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 233-245. DOI: 10.2166/aqua.2006.0008

Xagoraraki I., Harrington G.W., (2004). Zeta Potential, Dissolved Organic Carbon and Removal of Cryptosporidium Oocysts by Alum Coagulation. Journal of Environmental Engineering, Vol. 130, No. 12, pp. 1424-1432. DOI: 10.1061/(asce)0733-9372(2004)130:12(1424)

Xagoraraki I., Harrington G.W., Assavasilavasukul P., Standridge J.H., (2004). Removal of Emerging Waterborne Pathogens by Pilot-Scale Conventional Treatment. Journal American Water Works Association, Vol. 96, No. 5, pp. 102-113. DOI: 10.1002/j.1551-8833.2004.tb10632.x

Harrington G.W., Xagoraraki I., Assavasilavasukul P., Standridge J.H., (2003). Effect of Filtration Conditions on Removal of Emerging Waterborne Pathogens. Journal American Water Works Association, Vol. 95, No.12, pp. 95-104. DOI: 10.1002/j.1551-8833.2003.tb10514.x