Thomas R. Bieler, Professor

(Visiting Scientist, Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, 1999)

(Gastprofessor, Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, Düsseldorf, Germany, 2006)

Areas of Interest

Current Research Projects

Synergistic Activities

·         Member of ASM International (ASM), American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE), and active leader in the Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society (TMS) on following committees: Accreditation, Computational Materials Science & Engr, Mechanical Behavior, MPMD Council, Programming, Shaping and Forming.

·         Chair of MSE Curriculum Committee at MSU; manage undergrad program, updating curriculum, accreditation activities (ABET visitor once per year).

·         Winner of 4 best paper and 1 best poster awards that reflect important knowledge creation in international conferences for research (voted by peers or organizers).

·         Industrial and National Laboratory research collaboration to identify solutions to production problems in titanium and lead free solder alloys, and pure niobium.

·         International Collaboration with Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, in Düsseldorf, Germany in developing finite element/crystal plasticity computational modeling approaches for identifying damage nucleation mechanisms and prediction criteria.


Selected Publications of Thomas R. Bieler (226 Publications as of 1/20/2012)

h-factor (ISI): more than 29 papers have been referred to more than 29 times, > 2294 citations


Reviewed Journal papers:  (10 most recent)


114.    Impact of Isothermal Aging and Sn Grain Orientation on the Long-Term Reliability of Wafer-Level Chip-Scale Package Sn–Ag–Cu Solder Interconnects, Tae-Kyu Lee, Bite Zhou, Thomas R. Bieler, IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies (CPMT) 2(3), 496-501, (2012), DOI 10.1109/TCPMT.2011.2181169.


113.    Orientation informed nanoindentation of alpha-titanium: Indentation pileup in hexagonal metals deforming by prismatic slip, Claudio Zambaldi, Yiyi Yang, Thomas R. Bieler, Dierk Raabe, Journal of Materials Research 27(1), 356-367, 2012 DOI: 10.1557/jmr.2011.334. 


112.    The Role of Elastic and Plastic Anisotropy of Sn on Recrystallization and Damage Evolution During Thermal Cycling in SAC305 Solder Joints, Thomas R. Bieler, Bite Zhou, Lauren Blair, Amir Zamiri, Payam Darbandi, Farhang Pourboghrat, Tae-Kyu Lee, Kuo-Chuan Liu, Journal of Electronic Materials, 41(2), 283-301, 2012.

111.    Impact of Microstructure Evolution and Isothermal Aging on Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Interconnect Board-Level High-G Mechanical Shock Performance and Crack Propagation, Tae-Kyu Lee, Bite Zhou, T.R. Bieler and Kuo-Chuan Liu, Journal of Electronic Materials, 41(2), 273-282, 2012.

110.    In-situ synchrotron characterization of melting, dissolution and resolidification in lead-free solders, Bite Zhou, Thomas R. Bieler, Guilin Wu, Stefan Zaefferer, Tae-Kyu Lee, Kuo-Chuan Liu, Journal of Electronic Materials, 41(2), 262-272, 2012.


109.    Characterization and Modeling of Heterogeneous Deformation in Commercial Purity Titanium, Y. Yang, L. Wang, C. Zambaldi, P. Eisenlohr, R. Barabash, W. Liu, M.R. Stoudt, M.A. Crimp, T.R. Bieler, JOM 63(9), 66-73, 2011.


108.    Impact of Isothermal Aging on Long-Term Reliability of Fine-Pitch Ball Grid Array Packages with Sn-Ag-Cu Solder Interconnects: Die Size Effects Tae-Kyu Lee, Weidong Xie, Bite Zhou, Thomas Bieler, Kuo-Chuan Liu, J. Electronic Materials 40(9) 1967-76,  2011.


107.    Correlation between Sn grain orientation and corrosion in Sn-Ag-Cu solder interconnects, Tae-Kyu Lee, Bo Liu, Bite Zhou, Thomas Bieler and Kuo-Chuan Liu, J. Electronic Materials, 40(9) 1895-1902, 2011.


106.    Foreword: Structural Transitions and Local Deformation Processes at and Near Grain Boundaries, Bieler Thomas R., Barabash Rozaliya, Banovic Stephen W., Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 42A(3), 553-553, 2011.


105.    Quantitative Atomic Force Microscopy characterization and crystal plasticity finite element modeling of heterogeneous deformation in commercial purity titanium, Y. Yang, L. Wang, T. R. Bieler, P. Eisenlohr, M. A. Crimp, Metall. Mater. Trans A, 42A(3), 636-644, 2011.


104.    Experimental characterization and crystal plasticity modeling of heterogeneous deformation in polycrystalline α-Ti, Leyun Wang, Rozaliya Barabash, Yiyi Yang, Thomas Bieler, Martin Crimp, Philip Eisenlohr, Wenjun Liu, and Gene Ice, Metall Mater. Trans A., 42A(3), 626-635, 2011.

Some highly cited other papers…

12 papers have been cited 50 or more times as of 1/20/12:

211         Acta Mater., 1995 Overview on Superplasticity

127         J. Elect. Mater., 1999 on lead-free solder

112         Scripta Mater., 1988 on high strain rate superplasticity

89           Acta Mater., 2001 on hot working in Ti-6Al-4V

82           Mater. Sci. Eng. A 1990 on high strain rate superplasticity

70           Acta Mater.,  1997 on high strain rate superplasticity

65           J. Elect. Mater., 2001 on lead-free solder

55           Phil. Mag. A, 1995 on twinning in TiAl

52           J. Elect. Mater., 2004 on lead-free solder

51           J. Elect. Mater., 2000 on lead-free solder

50           Int. J. Plasticity 2002 Ti-6Al-4V hot working

50           J. Materials Res. 2002 First OIM study on solder


96.      Overview No. 149:  Overview of constitutive laws, kinematics, homogenization, and multiscale methods in crystal plasticity finite element modeling: theory, experiments, applications, F. Roters, P. Eisenlohr, L. Hantcherli, D. D. Tjahjanto, T. R. Bieler, D. Raabe, Acta Materialia, 58(4) 1152-1211, (2010).


87.      The role of heterogeneous deformation on damage nucleation at grain boundaries in single phase metals, T.R. Bieler, P. Eisenlohr, F. Roters, D. Kumar, D.E. Mason, M.A. Crimp, D. Raabe, International Journal of Plasticity 25(9), 1655–1683, (2009).


83.      Influence of Sn Grain Size and Orientation on the Thermomechanical Response and Reliability of Pb-free Solder Joints, T.R. Bieler and H. Jiang, L. P. Lehman, T. Kirkpatrick, E. J. Cotts, and B. Nandagopal,  IEEE Transactions on Components and Packaging Technologies (CPMT) 31(2), 370-381, (2008).  (COVER PHOTO)


75.      Incremental recrystallization/grain growth driven by elastic strain energy release in a thermomechanically fatigued lead-free solder joint, Telang, A.U., Bieler, T.R., Zamiri, A., Pourboghrat, F., Acta Materialia 55(7), pp. 2265-2277,  (2007).


74.      Pb-Free Solder: New Materials Considerations for Microelectronics Processing, Peter Borgesen, Thomas Bieler, L.P. Lehman, and E.J. Cotts, MRS Bulletin 32, (2007), pp. 360-5.  (COVER PHOTO)


69.      Orientation Imaging Microscopy of Lead-Free Sn-Ag Solder Joints, A.U. Telang, T.R. Bieler, JOM, 57(6), 44-49, (2005).


67.      Grain Boundary Sliding on near-7, 14, and 22º Special Boundaries During Thermomechanical Cycling in Surface-Mount Lead-Free Solder Joint Specimens A.U.Telang, T.R.Bieler, and M.A. Crimp, Materials Science and Engineering, A421 (1-2) 22-34  (2006).


66.      Anisotropic Plasticity and Cavity Growth during Upset Forging of Ti-6Al-4V, T.R. Bieler, R.L. Goetz, and S.L. Semiatin, Materials Science and Engineering  A405, pp. 201-213, (2005).


65.      Fracture Initiation/Propagation Parameters for Duplex TiAl Grain Boundaries Based on Twinning, Slip, Crystal Orientation, and Boundary Misorientation,  T.R. Bieler, A. Fallahi, B.C. Ng, D. Kumar, M.A. Crimp, B.A. Simkin, A. Zamiri, F. Pourboghrat, D.E. Mason, Intermetallics 13(9), pp. 979-984, (2005),.


63.      Effects of working, heat treatment, and aging, on microstructural evolution and crystallographic texture of a, a’, a” and b phases in Ti-6Al-4V wire, L. Zeng and T.R. Bieler, Materials Science and Engineering A, 392(1-2) pp. 403-414, (2005).


62.      An Experimental and Theoretical Investigation of the Effect of Colony Orientation and Misorientation on Cavitation during Hot Working of Ti-6Al-4V, T.R. Bieler, P.D. Nicolaou, and S.L. Semiatin, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions, 36A(1) pp. 129-140, (2005).


61.      Grain Boundary Character and Grain Growth in Bulk Tin and Bulk Lead-free Solder Alloys A.U.Telang, T.R.Bieler, J.P. Lucas, K.N. Subramanian, L.P. Lehman, Y.Xing, and E.J. Cotts, Journal of Electronic Materials, 33(12), pp. 1412-1423, (2004).


58.      A Factor to Predict Microcrack Nucleation at gamma-gamma  Grain Boundaries in TiAl, B.A. Simkin, M.A. Crimp, T.R. Bieler, Scripta Materialia 49(2), pp. 149-154, (2003).


51.      Orientation Imaging Studies of Sn-Based Electronic Solder Joints, A.U. Telang, T.R. Bieler, S. Choi, K.N. Subramanian, Journal of Materials Research 17(9), pp. 2294-2306, (2002).


49.      The Origins of Heterogeneous Deformation During Primary Hot Working of Ti-6Al-4V, T.R. Bieler and S.L. Semiatin, International Journal of Plasticity 18, pp. 1165-1189 (2002).


46.      The Effect Of Alpha Platelet Thickness on Plastic Flow During Hot Working Of Ti-6Al-4V with a Transformed Microstructure, S.L. Semiatin, T.R. Bieler, Acta Materialia 49, 3565-73 (2001),.


43.      Stress Relaxation Behavior of Tin-Silver Eutectic and Composite Solder Joints, S. Jadhav, T.R. Bieler, K.N. Subramanian, and J.P. Lucas, Journal of Electronic Materials 30(9), pp. 1197-1205 (2001).


42.      Transitions in Morphology Observed in Nitrogen/Methane-Hydrogen Depositions of Polycrystalline Diamond Films, V. M. Ayres, M. Farhan, D. Spach, J. Abdul Majeed, B. F. Wright, B. L. Wright, J. Asmussen, M. Kanatzidis and T. R. Bieler, Journal of Appled Physics 89, pp. 6062-8 (2001).


39.      Creep Properties of Eutectic Sn-Ag Solder and Sn-Ag Composite Solders Containing Intermetallic Particles, S. Choi, J. Lee, F. Guo, T.R. Bieler, K.N. Subramanian, and J.P. Lucas, JOM 53(6), pp. 22-27(June 2001).


35.      Thermomechanical Fatigue Behavior of Sn-Ag Solder Joints, S. Choi, K.N. Subramanian, J.P. Lucas, and T.R. Bieler, Journal of Electronic Materials  29, pp. 1249-57, (2000).


32.      Characterization of the Growth of Intermetallic Interfacial Layers of Sn-Ag and Sn-Pb Eutectic Solders and their Composite Solders on Cu Substrate During Isothermal Long-Term Aging, S. Choi, T.R. Bieler, and K.N. Subramanian, Journal of Electronic Materials, 28, pp. 1209- (1999).


21.      Mechanism of High Strain Rate Superplasticity in Aluminum Alloy Composites, R.S. Mishra, T.R. Bieler, and A.K. Mukherjee, Acta Materialia 45(2) pp. 561-568 (1997).


15.      A Numerical Force and Stress Analysis on a Thin Twin Layer in TiAl, Z. Jin and T.R. Bieler, Philosophical Magazine A 72, pp. 1201-19, (1995).


12.      An In Situ observation of mechanical twinning nucleation and propagation in TiAl, Z. Jin and T.R. Bieler, Philosophical Magazine A, 71, pp. 925-47, (1995).  10.1080/01418619508236229


11.      Overview No. 119, Superplasticity in Powder Metallurgy Aluminum Alloys and Composites, R.S. Mishra, T.R. Bieler, A.K. Mukherjee, Acta Metallurgica et Materialia 43, pp. 877-891, (1995).


4.         The High Strain Rate Superplastic Deformation Mechanisms of Mechanically Alloyed Aluminum IN90211, T.R. Bieler and A.K. Mukherjee, Materials Science and Engineering A128, pp. 171-182, (1990).


1.         Superplastic-like Behavior at High Strain Rates in Mechanically Alloyed Aluminum, T.R. Bieler, T.G. Nieh, J. Wadsworth, and A.K. Mukherjee, Scripta Metallurgica 22, pp. 81-86, (1988).



1          Crystal plasticity finite element methods in materials science and engineering, F. Roters, P. Eisenlohr, T.R. Bieler, D. Raabe, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany, 2010, ~180 pp.

Books (Editor):

9          Applications Of Texture Analysis, A Collection of Papers Presented at the 15th International Conference on Texture in Materials (ICOTOM 15), June 1-6, 2008, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Chief Editor, A.D. Rollett, Ceramic Transactions, Volumes 200 and 201, American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio 43082, 2008 (co-eds Brent Adams, Katayun Barmak, Thomas Bieler, Keith Bowman, Paul Dawson, Roger Doherty, Olaf Engler, Hamid Garmestani, Amit Goyal, Erik Hilinski, Roland Logé, Lee Semiatin, Robert Suter, Carlos Tomé, Sven Vogel, Hasso Weiland, Stuart Wright, (I was one of three editors for the 23 papers in the hexagonal metals symposium).


8          Processing and Mechanical Response of Engineering Materials Symposium held in honor of Professor Amiya Mukherjee at the TMS Annual Meeting, San Antonio, Texas, March 12-16, 2006; guest editors, J. Schneider, R.S. Mishra, T.R. Bieler, Y.T. Zhu, K.B. Morsi, V.L. Acoff, E.M. Taleff, R. Valiev, G. Kostorz, Materials Science and Engineering A463 (1-2), 15 August 2007, pp 1-288.


7          Trends in Materials and Manufacturing Technologies for Transportation Industries and Powder Metallurgy Research and Development in the Transportation Industry, 6th Global Innovations Proceedings, eds, T.R. Bieler, J.E. Carsley, H. Fraser, J.E. Smugeresky, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 2005,. 394 pages.


6          Hot Deformation in Aluminum Alloys III, (Proceedings from a symposium held in San Diego March 3-6, 2003), eds. Z. Jin, A. Beaudoin, T.A. Bieler, B. Radakrishnan, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 2003, 556 pages.


5          Rate Processes in Plastic Deformation II: Towards a Unified Constitutive Theory of Deformation, TMS Fall Meeting 2000, 9-10 October, 2000, St. Louis, MO, USA, guest eds. S.V. Raj, T.R. Bieler, F. A. Mohamed and B. Kad, Materials Science and Engineering, A322 (15 January 2002), pp. 1-256.


4          Hot Deformation in Aluminum Alloys II, eds. T.R. Bieler, Lawrence Lalli and Stuart MacEwen, TMS Warrendale, PA, 1998, 434 pages.


3          Superplasticity and Superplastic Forming 1998, eds. A.K. Ghosh and T.R. Bieler, TMS Warrendale, PA, 1998, 336 pages.


2          Superplasticity and Superplastic Forming 1995, eds. A.K. Ghosh and T.R. Bieler, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 1995, 281 pages.


1          Advances in Hot Deformation Textures and Microstructures, eds. J.J. Jonas, T.R. Bieler, and K.J. Bowman, TMS, Warrendale, PA, 1994, 591 pages.

Book Chapters/Sections:

4          Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, article on Lead-Free Solder, T.R. Bieler, and T.-K.Lee, eds. K. H. Jürgen Buschow, Robert W. Cahn, Merton C. Flemings, Bernard Ilschner (print), Edward J. Kramer, Subhash Mahajan, and Patrick Veyssière (updates)   ISBN: 978-0-08-043152-9, Elsevier, 2010, pp. 1-12.


3          Alloys: Titanium, in Encyclopedia of Condensed Matter Physics, T.R. Bieler, Ryan M. Trevino, Liang Zeng, eds, F. Bassani, G. Liedl, P Wyder, Elsevier Ltd, Oxford, England, (2005) pp. 65-76.


2          "Superplasticity in Hard-to-Machine Materials", T.R. Bieler, R.S. Mishra and A.K. Mukherjee, Annual Review of Materials Science, vol 26, (1996) pp. 75-106.


1          "Mechanical Shaping of Metal Matrix Composites", K.N. Subramanian, T.R. Bieler and J.P. Lucas, in Key Engineering Materials, eds. G.M. Newaz, H. Neber-Aeschbacher and F.H. Wohlbier, Trans Tech. Ltd., Switzerland, 1995, V104-107, part 1: pp. 175-214.


Reviewed Conference Articles (selected):


50.       The Role of Elastic and Plastic Anisotropy of Sn on Microstructure and Damage Evolution in Lead-Free Solder Joints, INVITED, Thomas R. Bieler, Bite Zhou, Lauren Blair, Amir Zamiri, Payam Darbandi, Farhang Pourboghrat, Tae-Kyu Lee, Kuo-Chuan Liu, Proceedings of the International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS/IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2011), paper 5F.1, pp. IRPS11-573-81.


46.       Effects of Elastic Modulus on Deformation and Recrystallization of High Purity Nb, D. Baars, H. Jiang, T.R. Bieler, A. Zamiri, F. Pourboghrat, and C. Compton, Applications Of Texture Analysis, A Collection of Papers Presented at the 15th International Conference on Texture in Materials (ICOTOM 15), June 1-6, 2008, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Chief Editor, A.D. Rollett, Ceramic Transactions, Volume 201, American Ceramic Society, Westerville, Ohio 43082, 2008, pp. 391-98.


45.       Prediction of crack paths based upon detailed microstructure characterization in a near-g TiAl Alloy, B.C. Ng, T.R. Bieler, M.A. Crimp, D.E. Mason, TMS MS&T 2004 Symposium on Materials Damage Prognosis Edited by J.M Larsen, J.R. Calcaterra, L. Christodoulou, M.L. Dent, W.J. Hardman, J.W. Jones, S.M. Russ, TMS (The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 2005), pp. 307-14.


40.       Evolution of Recrystallization Textures from Cold Rolling Textures With Reversed Rolling in High Purity Niobium, H. Jiang, T.R. Bieler, C. Compton, T.L. Grimm, TMS Letters: Vol 1(8) 2004, pp. 177-178.


38.       “The Role of Special Boundaries During Solidification and Microstructure Evolution in Lead Free Solder Joints”, Adwait U. Telang, Thomas R. Bieler, Proceedings of International Conference on Texture of Materials, (ICOTOM 14), Leuven Belgium, July 10-15, 2005, Materials Science Forum, 495-497 (2005) pp. 1419-1424.


37.       “Dislocation Activity and Slip Analysis Contributing to Grain Boundary Sliding and Damage During Thermomechanical Fatigue in Dual Shear Lead-Free Solder Joint Specimens”, A.U.Telang and T.R.Bieler, International Conference on Texture and Anisotropy of Polycrystals (ITAP 2),  Metz, France, 2004, Solid State Phenomena 105 (2005) pp. 219-226.


30.       “Mechanisms of Lamellar Refinement During Primary Creep of Near-Gamma Duplex TiAl”, D.Y. Seo, T.R. Bieler, International Symposium on Gamma Titanium Aluminides, eds. Y.W. Kim, D.M. Dimiduk, M.H. Loretto, (TMS, Warrendale, PA, 1999), pp. 701-8.


28.       “Mechanisms of Primary and Secondary Creep in Near-Gamma TiAl Alloys”, T.R. Bieler, D.Y. Seo, T.R. Everard, P.A. McQuay, in Creep Behavior of Advanced Materials for the 21st Century eds. R.S. Mishra, A.K. Mukherjee and K. Linga Murty, (TMS, Warrendale, PA, 1999), pp. 181-196.


26.       “The Effect of Carbon Concentration on Primary creep of an Investment Cast Ti-47Al-2Mn-2Nb+0.8vol%TiB2 Alloy”, D.Y. Seo, T. Everard, P.A. McQuay, T.R. Bieler, Interstitial and Substitutional Solute Effects in Intermetallics, eds. I. Baker, R.D. Noebe, and E.P. George, (TMS, Warrendale, PA, 1998) pp. 227-244.


20        “Effect of Interstitial Concentration and Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Primary Creep of Investment Cast Ti-47Al-2Mn-2Nb with 0.8v% TiB2”, D.Y. Seo, T.R. Bieler, and D.E. Larsen, High-Temperature Ordered Intermetallic Alloys VII, eds. C.C. Koch, C.T. Liu, N.S. Stoloff, A. Wanner,  Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 460 (Pittsburgh, PA, 1997), pp. 281-6.


14        "Region I Deformation Mechanisms in High Strain Rate Superplastic IN9021", T.R. Bieler and A.K. Mukherjee, Superplasticity and Superplastic Forming 1995, eds. A.K. Ghosh and T.R. Bieler, pp. 153-160, (TMS Warrendale, PA, 1995).


Other Conference Articles:


44        Characterization of large grain Nb ingot microstructures using EBSP mapping and Laue camera methods, D. Kang, D.C. Baars, T.R. Bieler, C. Compton, Symposium on the Superconducting Science and Technology of Ingot Niobium (SSTIN10), eds. G. R. Myneni, G. Ciovati, M. Stuart, American Institute of Physics, conference proceedings v. 1352, (2011), pp. 90-99.


42        The interaction between grain orientation evolution and thermal cycling as a function of position in ball grid arrays using Orientation Imaging Microscopy, Tae-Kyu Lee, Bite Zhou, Lauren Blair, Kuo-Chuan Liu Jie Xue and Thomas R. Bieler, IEEE Proceedings, 60th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC) , 2010, Las Vegas, NV.


34        Influence of Sn Grain Size and Orientation on the Thermomechanical Response and Reliability of Pb-free Solder Joints, T. R. Bieler, H. Jiang, L. P. Lehman, T. Kirkpatrick, and E. J. Cotts,  2006 Proceedings. 56th Electronic Components & Technology Conference (IEEE Cat. No. 06CH37766C), 2006, p 6.


33        Effect of Growth Velocity on Development of Preferred Orientations in Directionally Solidified TiAl-2Mo-2Nb, T.R. Bieler, D.Y. Seo, H. Saari, J. Beddoes, Aerospace Materials and Manufacturing: Development, Testing, and Life Cycle Issues - Honouring William Wallace, 2nd International Symposium, 43rd Annual Conference of Metallurgists of CIM Hamilton, ON, August 2004, eds. P.C. Patnaik, M. Hahazi, M. Elboujdaini, J. Luo, MetSoc/CIM 2004, pp 275-87.


31        Mechanical Properties, Microstructure, and Texture of Electron Beam Butt Welds in High Purity Niobium”, H. Jiang, T.R. Bieler, C. Compton, T. Grimm, Proceedings of the 2003 Particle Accelerator Conference (12-19 May 2003, Portland Oregon), IEEE Publishing, (2003), pp. 1359-1361.


25        “Texture measurement and simulation of multi-pass hot rolling of Ti-6Al-4V in the two phase temperature range” Thomas R. Bieler and S.L. Semiatin, J.J. Jonas symposium, COM 2000, proceedings, CIM, Montreal, 2000, pp. 253-64.


13        "The Role of Threshold Stresses and Incipient Melting in High Strain Rate Superplasticity", T.R. Bieler, R.S. Mishra, and A.K. Mukherjee, Proceedings of International Conference on Superplasticity in Advanced Materials, Materials Science Forum Vols. 170-2, pp. 65-70, (1994).


Please send any feedback, suggestions, to Tom Bieler    Last modified on 8/8/2012