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Implantable Neuroprosthetic Microdevices

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This project aims to develop the next generation of the next generation of brain-machine interfaces based on an emerging optogenetics technology. My research team has been working on design, fabrication, and characterization of a variety of implantable, power-efficient, hybrid optical/electrical microsystems, for optogenetic neuromodulation and electrical recording of functional brain activity with high spatiotemporal resolution.

Minimally Invasive Opto-ECoG Array

Graph of a minimally invasive opto-ECoG Array

  • Epidural optical stimulation via LEDs and simultaneous electrical recording via transparent microelectrodes  
  • Minimized photoelectrical artifacts without compromising optical throughput
  • 32 channels with a channel size of 200 µm in diameter and a 500 µm separation
  • Parylene-C as the flexible substrate and packaging material  

Fully Implantable, Hybrid Optrode Arrays

Graph of a fully implantable hybrid optrode arrays

  • Tapered SU-8 waveguides with lengths varying from 300-1500 µm for delivering light to 3-dimentional neural networks  
  • A multi-layered cladding structure for electrical stimulation, extracellular recording, and reduction of photoelectrical artifacts,   

Wirelessly Powered Optical Neuromodulators

Graph of a wirelessly powered optical neuromodulators

  • A switched-capacitor stimulation system for power-efficient wireless optogenetics: ≤3mW per channel
  • Polymer-based system integration and packaging techniques
  • Suitable for chronic implantation in small, freely behaving animals

Project Participants: Dr. Ki Yong Kown, Bin Fan, Wasif Afsari, Joshua I. Rosario Sepúlveda, Brenton Sirowatka, Zongheng Pu

 Polycrystalline Diamond Based Neual Implants


  • Neural probes capable of optical stimulation through LEDs and simultaneous recording through integrated microelectrodes
  • Polycrystalline diamond head spreader for rapid dissipation of LED heat to surrounding biological environments

Project Participants: Bin Fan, Robert Rechenberg, Michael F. Becker