December 2018

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Long-Term Management and Control of Critical Infrastructure Systems using Cyber-Physical System Architectures

Long-Term Management and Control of Critical Infrastructure Systems using Cyber-Physical System Architectures

Event Date/Time: 
December 3, 2018 - 11:00am
Event Location: 
3405 Engineering Building
Speaker: 
Dr. Jerome Lynch
CEE Seminar

Dr. Jerome Lynch

Donald Malloure Department Chair of Civil and Environmental Engineering 
Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan
 
Long-Term Management and Control of Critical Infrastructure Systems
 using Cyber-Physical System Architectures

 

Monday, November 26, 2018

11:00 am - 12:00 pm
 3540 Engineering Building

 

Abstract

The economic prosperity of the United States is dependent on the well-being of extensive national networks of infrastructure systems. With many of these infrastructure systems rapidly aging, vigilant inspection and management methods are increasingly needed to ensure system safety.  Fortunately, the confluence of sensing, wireless communications, low-power embedded computing and Internet-based computing has led to the creation of new technologies that can be deployed to monitor and control critical infrastructure systems.  In this presentation, a wireless cyber-physical system framework for dynamically loaded civil infrastructure systems is described and illustrated. Validation of the proposed framework is conducted using a permanent wireless monitoring system installed on the Telegraph Road Bridge in Monroe, Michigan.  A dense network of wireless sensors has been installed and interfaced to an Internet-based cyber-environment for the storage and real-time processing of bridge response data.  The massive amounts of bridge response data acquired over years of operation requires scalable data processing methods. The work presented explores the adoption of Gaussian process regression (GPR) as a data-driven regression method that can model the baseline (healthy) relationships between bridge response parameters. GPR serves as a basis for the creation of a decision-making framework for bridge managers that adopt statistical process control (SPC) methodologies for asset management.  The work presented also extends the cyber-physical framework to model the heavy truck loads that excite bridges.  Connected vehicle (CV) technology is installed on a large truck to connect trucks to the cyber-physical system architecture. Time synchronized truck and bridge data collected by the bridge monitoring system is used to model vehicle-bridge interactions.

 

Biography

Dr. Jerome Lynch is the Donald Malloure Department Chair of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the University of Michigan; he is also Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Professor of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science.  Dr. Lynch completed his graduate studies at Stanford University where he received his Ph.D. in Civil and Environmental Engineering in 2002, M.S. in Civil and Environmental Engineering in 1998, and M.S. in Electrical Engineering in 2003. Prior to attending Stanford, Dr. Lynch received his B.E. in Civil and Environmental Engineering from the Cooper Union in New York City.  His current research interests are in the areas of wireless cyber-physical systems, cyberinfrastructure tools for management of structural monitoring datasets, and nanoengineered thin film sensors for damage detection and structural health monitoring.  Dr. Lynch has been awarded the 2005 ONR Young Investigator Award, 2009 NSF CAREER Award, 2009 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE), 2012 ASCE EMI Leonardo da Vinci Award and 2014 ASCE Huber Award.

12/03/2018 - 11:00am
 
MONITORING THE EFFECTS OF DROUGHT ON CROP YIELD IN THE LOWER MEKONG BASIN

MONITORING THE EFFECTS OF DROUGHT ON CROP YIELD IN THE LOWER MEKONG BASIN

Event Date/Time: 
December 4, 2018 - 10:00am
Event Location: 
Room 3546D Engineering Building
Speaker: 
Abhijeet Abhishek
Master’s Thesis Defense



Master’sThesis Defense

 

MONITORING THE EFFECTS OF DROUGHT ON CROP YIELD IN THE LOWER MEKONG BASIN

 

By

Abhijeet Abhishek

 

Advisor: Prof. Phanikumar Mantha

 

Tuesday, December 4, 2018 at 10:00 am - 12:00 pm

 

Room 3546D Engineering Building


Abstract

         Strong evidence of changing weather patterns and risk of extreme events in the Lower Mekong Basin have a cascading impact on the natural ecosystem, agricultural productivity, and food production, pushing the region's resources to the brink of disaster. Recurring drought in the region has resulted in the need of a monitoring system for assessing the intrinsic nature of drought. Therefore, the objective of this study is to test an integrated modeling system that simulates the hydrological variables, drought characteristic, and crop yield over the Lower Mekong Basin. This study uses a coupled hydrologic and crop modeling framework- Regional Hydrologic Extremes Assessment System (RHEAS) over Cambodia in Lower Mekong Basin, which provides different drought severity measures and end-of-season crop yield estimates for 2000-2016. Gridded meteorological data were forced to the hydrologic model at a spatial resolution of 0.25° to estimate the fundamental drought characteristics, whereas the outputs from the hydrologic model were further used as forcing for the crop model. The validation of the RHEAS outputs was done using more than 3 years of soil moisture data from the SMAP mission. A good correlation (r=0.8) was obtained between the simulated RHEAS-based surface soil moisture data and the SMAP data over Cambodia, providing confidence to the model performance. For the crop model performance, yield estimates were compared against the observed rice yields from FAO. The simulated yield and observed yield also exhibited a good correlation (R²=0.83) for years 2008-2016, while the initial simulation years (2000-2008) showed a substantial bias between observed and model estimates. The yield differences can be attributed to the mismatch of crop cultivars and management practices used in RHEAS, making it difficult for the model to capture the trend. We envisage that RHEAS will improve the management of drought-related risks on agriculture in the Lower Mekong Basin countries for better decision making.

12/04/2018 - 10:00am
 
 
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF TRANSPARENT PHOTOVOLTAICS

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF TRANSPARENT PHOTOVOLTAICS

Event Date/Time: 
December 6, 2018 - 10:30am
Event Location: 
Room A10 Engineering Research Complex
Speaker: 
Eunsang Lee
PhD Dissertation Defense Presentation

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering

Ph.D. Dissertation Defense Presentation

Time: Thursday, Dec. 6th at 10:30 a.m.

Place: Room A10 Engineering Research Complex

 

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF TRANSPARENT PHOTOVOLTAICS

By

Eunsang Lee

Advisor: Dr. Annick Anctil

 

ABSTRACT

Transparent organic photovoltaics (TPV) can harvest energy from the near-infrared (NIR) and ultraviolet region of the solar spectrum and could be used in new applications such as windows.  In addition to producing electricity the transparent organic solar cell absorbs in the NIR region and could reduce the cooling energy demand of the building during summer. Organic photovoltaics is an emerging technology, developed mostly to replace fossil fuel energy based to reduce greenhouse gases emissions. As new technology is reaching commercialization, it is essential to quantify its environmental impact and ensure that new issues are not created. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is often used to compare energy technologies and identify environmental concerns but is challenging for emerging technologies due to lack of inventory data. To  guide future transparent OPV development this work (1) demonstrates a new iterative methodology to evaluate and guide OPV material manufacturing that combines LCA and green chemistry approaches, (2) evaluate the energy saving from organic TPV in window and skylight applications in various cities, and (3) assess the impact of organic TPV on urban heat island effect.

The methodology was used to identify the “hotspot”, which correspond to the process  that has the highest impact for chloroaluminum phthalocyanine (ClAlPc). An optimized process that reduces the environmental impact by 3%, the cost by 9% and chemicals hazard by 23% compared to the current process was demonstrated. The impact of TPV during the use phase was studied using ClAlPc based devices in window application. The building energy performance was shown to be improved by up to 20 % due to heating and cooling energy saving. The energy saving vary with climate since NIR absorption by TPV in window is more efficient in warmer climate. The use of TPV for window  in urban area could also reduce the energy demand of buildings. The net energy saving by the TPV application in urban area was calculated to be higher than in rural area by up to 2 GJ per month.

12/06/2018 - 10:30am
 
Classes End

Classes End

Event Date/Time: 
December 7, 2018 - 8:00am
Event Location: 
Speaker: 
Fall semester classes end
12/07/2018 - 8:00am
 
VIRUSES IN WATER AND WASTEWATER AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE TO PUBLIC HEALTH

VIRUSES IN WATER AND WASTEWATER AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE TO PUBLIC HEALTH

Event Date/Time: 
December 7, 2018 - 1:00pm
Event Location: 
A10 Engineering Research Complex
Speaker: 
Evan Patrick O’Brien
Ph.D. Dissertation Defense

Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering

Ph.D. Dissertation Defense

 

Friday, December 7, 2018 @ 1:00 p.m.

A10 Engineering Research Complex

 

VIRUSES IN WATER AND WASTEWATER AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE TO PUBLIC HEALTH

 

by

Evan Patrick O’Brien

Advisor:  Dr. Irene Xagoraraki

 

Abstract:

            Viruses are responsible for millions of disease cases and deaths each year worldwide. Water-related viruses are of particular concern to environmental engineers, especially with regards to wastewater. Wastewater can be a valuable tool in the investigation of viral disease. This dissertation seeks to study the presence, quantification, and diversity of viruses in wastewater in the application of various methodologies for the protection of human, animal, and environmental health.

           

The first study proposes a One-Health approach for the identification and prevention of water-related viral disease outbreaks. One-Health posits that human, animal, and environmental health are all innately interrelated. The proposed methodology is a three-step approach that calls for the identification of critical water-related exposure pathways for viruses, the design of surveillance systems to observe these pathways, and the implementation of interventions to block viral transmission along these pathways. The second study is an application of the proposed approach in the state of Michigan. The goal of this study was to identify factors that are predictive of viral disease. The identification of these critical factors can inform public health officials on the most effective ways of preventing future viral disease outbreaks.

           

The third study proposes a methodology for the use of wastewater as an epidemiological tool to predict and identify viral disease outbreaks. Wastewater can be considered a cumulative sample of the serviced population, and quantifying the concentration of a particular virus in wastewater indicates the number of disease cases in the serviced community. Important considerations, such as population normalization, shedding rates, and correlation with clinical data are discussed. Application of this methodology has the potential to identify outbreaks before disease cases are clinically reported.

           

 

The fourth study investigates viral diversity and abundance in wastewater and surface water from Kampala, Uganda. Samples were taken at the influent and effluent of a wastewater treatment plant, as well as surrounding surface waters. Four human viruses were quantified using qPCR, and next-generation sequencing was performed to assess viral diversity. It was found that wastewater effluent had an impact on surrounding surface waters, and that there were temporal fluctuations in the concentrations of human viruses, indicating the potential for wastewater to be used as an epidemiological tool.

 

The fifth study investigated different wastewater treatment barriers and their effects on wastewater effluent, which can impact environmental health upon release. This study analyzed viral diversity of wastewater effluent samples from membrane bioreactor treatment plants in Michigan and France. Diversity analysis indicated Herpesvirales was the most abundant order of potentially pathogenic human DNA viruses in all utilities, and other potentially pathogenic human viruses detected include Adenoviridae, Parvoviridae, and Polyomaviridae. The choice of treatment process (MBR versus activated sludge) had no measurable impact on effluent DNA viral diversity, while the type of disinfection had an impact on the viral diversity present in the effluent.  

 

In summary, these studies illustrate the importance of water and wastewater as a critical reservoir for viral disease. Treatment of these water resources is a vital responsibility of environmental engineers. Moreover, water and wastewater surveillance can prove a valuable tool in the early detection of viral outbreaks protection of public health.

12/07/2018 - 1:00pm
 
 
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Final Exams Week

Final Exams Week

Event Date/Time: 
December 10, 2018 - 7:00am to December 14, 2018 - 10:00pm
Event Location: 
Speaker: 
Final exams - all week
 
 
 
 
 
 
Commencements

Commencements

Event Date/Time: 
December 14, 2018 - 8:45am to December 15, 2018 - 5:00pm
Commencements for Baccalaureate and Advanced Degrees (See Related Website for detailed schedules.)
 
LABORATORY EVALUATION OF AN INNOVATIVE AND COST EFFECTIVE HIGH-FRICTION SURFACE TREATMENT

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF AN INNOVATIVE AND COST EFFECTIVE HIGH-FRICTION SURFACE TREATMENT

Event Date/Time: 
December 14, 2018 - 10:00am
Event Location: 
Room 3546D Engineering Building
Speaker: 
Xiaoyu Wendi Chen
Master’s Thesis Defense

Master’s Thesis Defense

 

LABORATORY EVALUATION OF AN INNOVATIVE AND COST EFFECTIVE HIGH-FRICTION SURFACE TREATMENT

 

By

Xiaoyu Wendi Chen

 

Advisor: Prof. M. Emin Kutay

 

Friday, December 14, 2018 at 10:00 am - 12:00 pm

 

Room 3546D Engineering Building

 

Abstract:

            High Friction Surface Treatment (HFST) is a surface treatment that can effectively improve the frictional characteristics of pavements and enhance the user’s safety on the road. Among all existing application of HFSTs, bauxite and oil-based epoxy resin are the most commonly used materials in the United States. However, bauxite and conventional epoxy resin are not cost-effective and provide limited preservation benefits to the pavement structure with existing distresses (i.e., top-down fatigue). In this study, the performance of a new and cost-effective HFST technique that uses waterborne epoxy, emulsified asphalt and corundum sand has been investigated through a battery of laboratory tests. The performance of the innovative HFST was evaluated and compared with common HFSTs (copper slags and bauxites) used in USA with respect to three aspects: (i) skid resistance improvement measured by British Pendulum Tester before and after the treatment, (ii) durability to environmental effects (moisture induced damage and freeze-thaw cycles), and (iii) the effect of application on surfaces with existing top-down cracking through Semi-Circular Bending tests. The results showed that the new HFST with waterborne epoxy and corundum was able to improve the skid resistance as well as (bauxites) or better than (copper slags) the conventional HFSTs. The deterioration rate on skid resistance of new HFST after freeze-thaw cycles and damage were found to be faster than bauxites but slower than copper slag. In addition, since corundum sand used in the low-cost HFST is much finer than either copper slags or bauxites and viscosity of waterborne epoxy is less than oil-based epoxy resin, the new HFST’s material has the potential to fill the existing cracks with a width of 1.5±0.1 mm and relief the further propagation of the existing top-down cracks. Laboratory testing results revealed that the innovative HFSF technique developed by a Chinese manufacturer has the potential to lower the material cost and perform as well as the materials regularly used in the United States.

12/14/2018 - 10:00am
 
 
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Holiday - University Closed (2 days)

Holiday - University Closed (2 days)

Event Date/Time: 
December 24, 2018 - 12:00am to December 25, 2018 - 12:59pm
Event Location: 
Speaker: 
Christmas Holiday - University closed for two full days
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Holiday - University Closed (2 days)

Holiday - University Closed (2 days)

Event Date/Time: 
December 31, 2018 - 12:00am to January 1, 2019 - 12:59pm
Event Location: 
Speaker: 
New Year's Day Holiday - University closed for two full days
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