|Title||Fabrication and multiscale characterization of 3D silver containing bioactive glass-ceramic scaffolds|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2019|
|Authors||Marsh, AC, Mellott, NP, Pajares-Chamorro, N, Crimp, MA, Wren, A, Hammer, ND, Chatzistavrou, X|
|Pagination||215 - 223|
|Type of Article||Research Article|
|Keywords||3D glass-ceramic scaffolds, Antibacterial properties, Bioactivity, Nano and macro structural properties, Silver|
In this work, we fabricated and characterized bioactive 3D glass-ceramic scaffolds with inherent antibacterial properties. The sol-gel (solution-gelation) technique and the sacrificial template method were applied for the fabrication of 3D highly porous scaffolds in the 58.6SiO - 24.9CaO - 7.2PO - 4.2AlO – 1.5NaO −1.5KO – 2.1AgO system (Ag-BG). This system is known for its advanced bioactive and antibacterial properties. The fabrication of 3D scaffolds has potential applications that impact tissue engineering. The study of the developed scaffolds from macro-characteristics to nano-, revealed a strong correlation between the macroscale properties such as antibacterial action, bioactivity with the microstructural characteristics such as elemental analysis, crystallinity. Elemental homogeneity, morphological, and microstructural characteristics of the scaffolds were studied by scanning electron microscopy associated with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), transmittance electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and UV-visible spectroscopy methods. The compressive strength of the 3D scaffolds was measured within the range of values for glass-ceramic scaffolds with similar compositions, porosity, and pore size. The capability of the scaffolds to form an apatite-like phase was tested by immersing the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) and the antibacterial response against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was studied. The formation of an apatite phase was observed after two weeks of immersion in SBF and the anti-MRSA effect occurs after both direct and indirect exposure.