PUBLICATION CATEGORIES

Nano Imaging and Manipulation

Blind techneques in Telecommunications  

Blind Source Separation BSS

RF Integrated Circuit RF-IC

Blind Source Recovery: Signal Separation and Deconvolution

Neural and other VLSI Implementations with their Applications

Neural Networks, Evolutionary Learning with Applications

Optimal and Nonlinear Control

 

Nano Imaging and Manipulation


  1. Integrated programmable coil-array CMOS platforms
  2. Nano Imaging at video-rate and beyond

 

Blind Techneques for Telecommunications


  1. Zaid Albataineh, Fathi Salem and Jehad Ababneh, “Linear Phase FIR Low Pass Filter Design Using Hybrid-Differential Evolution”, In Proc. of the International Journal of Research in Wireless Systems (IJRWS), Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp. 36-45, December 2012.
  2. Zaid Albataineh and Fathi Salem, “A Blind Adaptive CDMA Receiver Based on State Space Structures” IEEE Trans. Wireless communication 2014  to appear
  3. Zaid Albataineh and Fathi Salem, “Robust Blind Multiuser Detection Ds-CDMA Algorithm Using Simplified Fouth Order Cumulant Matrices,” Circuit, Systems and Signal Processing, Springer—previous version appeared-ICAS2013
  4. Zaid Albataineh and Fathi Salem, “Blind Multiuser Detection Based on the Fast Relative Newton Algorithm", in Proc. of IEEE Wireless Telecommunications Symposium, WTS-2014, to appear in WTS in DC in April 9, 2014.
  5. Zaid Albataineh and Fathi Salem, “Blind Multiuser Detection Ds-CDMA Algorithm Using Simplified Fouth Order Cumulant Matrices", in Proc. of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, ISCAS. pp. 1946 - 1949. May 19-23, 2013.
  6. Zaid Albataineh and Fathi Salem, "Blind Multiuser Detection in DS-CDMA Based on Extension of Efficient Fast Independent Component Analysis (EF-ICA)”, In Proc. of the 4th International Conference on Intelligent Systems, Modelling and Simulation (ISMS), IEEE International Conference, pp. 543 - 548. Jan 2013.
  7. Zaid Albataineh and Fathi Salem, “Blind Multiuser Detection in DS-CDMA Using H-DE and ICA Algorithms”, In Proc. of the 4th International Conference on Intelligent Systems, Modelling and Simulation (ISMS), IEEE International Conference, pp. 569- 574. Jan 2013.
  8.  Zaid Albataineh and Fathi Salem, “Blind Multiuser Detection DS-CDMA Based on Decoupled Relative Newton Algorithm", in Proc. of IEEE Conference on Communications, to be presented.
  9. Zaid Albataineh and Fathi Salem, “Constrained Blind Multiuser Detection for DS-CDMA System", in Proc. of IEEE Conference on Communications, to be presented.

 

Blind Source Separation (BSS)


  1. Zaid Albataineh and Fathi Salem, “Convex Cauchy-Schwarz Independent Component Analysis CCS-ICA for Blind Source Separation,” IEEE Trans. Neural Netw. 2014
  2. Zaid Albataineh and Fathi Salem, “RobustICA-Based Algorithm for Blind Separation of Convolutive Mixtures” IEEE Trans. Circuit and System I 2014
  3. Zaid Albataineh and Fathi Salem, “A Convex Cauchy-Schwarz Divergence Measure for Blind Source Separation” Springer. Neural Processing Letter 2014
  4. Zaid Albataineh and Fathi Salem, “Two Pairwise Iterative Schemes For High Dimensional Blind Source Separation,” Springer. Neural Processing Letter 2014


RF Intergrated Circuit


  1. Zaid Albataineh and Fathi Salem, “High Gain, High Linearity Mixer for 1.9GHz Receiver Front-Ends”, In Proc. of the International Journal of Research in Wireless Systems (IJRWS), Vol. 2. No. 1. pp. 1-6. March 2013.
  2. Zaid Albataineh and Fathi Salem, " An Energy-Efficient and High Gain Low Noise Amplifier for Receiver Front-Ends", In Proc. of the International Journal of Research in Wireless Systems (IJRWS), Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp.24-29, December 2012.

 

Blind Source Separation; Signal Separation and Deconvolution


  1. Khurram Waheed, Fathi M. Salam: Adaptive RAKE-Blind Source Recovery Algorithms for 3GPP UMTS/WCDMA Downlink Receivers; in 2003 IEEE International Conference on Robotics, Intelligent Systems & Signal processing RISSP-2003, May 19-24, 2003 Changsha, Hunan, China, to appear
  2. Khurram Waheed, Fathi M. Salam: Algebraic Independent Component Analysis ; in 2003 IEEE International Conference on Robotics, Intelligent Systems & Signal processing RISSP-2003, May 19-24, 2003 Changsha, Hunan, China, to appear
  3. Khurram Waheed, Keyur Desai, Fathi M. Salem: Algebraic Independent Component Analysis: An approach for Separation of Overcomplete Speech Mixtures; in 2003 IEEE-INNS Joint International Conference on Neural Networks, July 20-24, 2003, Portland OR, to appear
  4. Khurram Waheed, Keyur Desai, Fathi M. Salem: Natural Gradient based Blind Multi User Detection in QPSK DS-CDMA Systems; in 2003 IEEE-INNS Joint International Conference on Neural Networks, July 20-24, 2003, Portland OR, to appear
  5. Khurram Waheed, Fathi M. Salam: Blind Multi User Detection in DS-CDMA Systems using the Natural Gradient based Symbol Recovery Structures; in 4th International Symposium on Independent Component Analysis and Blind Source Separation, April 1-4, 2003 Nara, Japan; Page(s) 727-732
  6. Khurram Waheed, Fathi M. Salam: Algebraic Overcomplete Independent Component Analysis; in 4th International Symposium on Independent Component Analysis and Blind Source Separation, April 1-4, 2003 Nara, Japan; Page(s) 1077-1082
  7. Khurram Waheed, Fathi M. Salam: New Hyperbolic Source Density Models For Blind Source Recovery Score Functions; in 2003 International Symposium on Circuits & Systems, May 25-28, 2003 Bangkok, Thailand; in press
  8. Khurram Waheed, Fathi M. Salam: A Data-Derived Quadratic Independence Measure for Adaptive Blind Source Recovery in Practical Applications, 45th IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Tulsa, Oklahoma August 4-7, 2002, Vol. 3, Page(s). 473-476.
  9. Khurram Waheed, Fathi M. Salam: Blind Source Recovery using an Adaptive Generalized Gaussian Score Function, 45th IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Tulsa, Oklahoma August 4-7, 2002, Vol. 2, Page(s). 418-421.
  10. Khurram Waheed, Fathi M. Salam: Cascaded Structures for Blind Source Recovery, 45th IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Tulsa, Oklahoma August 4-7, 2002, Vol. 3, Page(s). 656-659.
  11. Khurram Waheed, Fathi M. Salam: State Space Blind Source Recovery of Non-Minimum Phase Environments, in 45th IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Tulsa, Oklahoma August 4-7, 2002, Vol. 2, Page(s). 422-425.
  12. Khurram Waheed, Fathi M. Salam: State-space Blind Source Recovery for Mixtures of Multiple Source Distributions; in Proc. of IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, May 26-29, 2002, ISCAS-2002, Scottsdale, Arizona, Page(s) 197-200.
  13. Fathi M. Salam, Khurram Waheed: State-space feedforward and feedback structures for blind source recovery; in 3rd International Conference on Independent Component Analysis and Blind Signal Separation, December 9-12, 2001 - San Diego, California, Page(s) 248-253
  14. Khurram Waheed; Fathi M. Salam: Blind Source Recovery: Some Implementation and Performance Issues, Proceedings of the 44th IEEE Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, August 14-17, 2001 - Dayton, Ohio, Page(s): 694-697 vol 2.
  15. Salam F. M.; Erten G. and Waheed K.: Blind Source Recovery: Algorithms for Static and Dynamic Environments; Submitted to INNS-IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IJCNN, 2001.
  16. Erten, G.; Salam, F.M: Voice extraction by on-line signal separation and recovery . IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Processing, Volume: 46 Issue: 7 , July 1999 Page(s): 915 -922
  17. Erten, G.; Salam, F.M.: Voice signal extraction for enhanced speech quality in noisy vehicle environments Proceedings of Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 1999, Volume: B.6-6 vol.2 , 1999 Page(s): 8.C.3-1 -8.C.3-6 vol.2
  18. Salam, F.M.; Erten, G.: Exact entropy series representation for blind source separation , Proceedings of 1999. IEEE conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, SMC '99, Volume: 1 , 1999 Page(s): 553 -558 vol.1
  19. Salam, F.M.; Erten, G.: The state space framework for blind dynamic signal extraction and recovery Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1999. ISCAS '99. , Volume: 5 , 1999 Page(s): 66 -69 vol.5
  20. Erten, G.; Salam, F.: Voice output extraction by signal separation, Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Symposium onCircuits and Systems, 1998. ISCAS '98. , Volume: 3 , 1998 Page(s): 5 -8 vol.3
  21. Salam F.M. and Erten G.: Blind Signal Separation and Recovery in Dynamic Environments, Proceedings of 3rd IEEE Workshop on Nonlinear Signal and Image Processing 1997, Mackinac Island, MI - September 8-10, 1997
  22. Salam, F.M.; Gharbi, A.B.; Erten, G.: Formulation and Algorithms for Blind Signal Recovery, Proceedings of the 40th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1997. , Volume: 2 , 1997 Page(s): 1233 -1236
  23. Erten, G.; Salam, F.M.: Real Time Separation of Audio Signals Using Digital Signal Processors, Proceedings of the 40th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1997., Volume: 2 , 1998 Page(s): 1237 -1240
  24. Ammar B. A. Gharbi and Fathi Salam: Algorithms for Blind Signal Separation and Recovery in Static and Dynamic Environments. ISCAS'97, June 9-12, Hong Kong.
  25. Ammar B. A. Gharbi and Fathi Salam: Implementation and Experimental Results of a Chip for the Separation of Mixed and Filtered Signals. Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computers, vol.6, no.2, pp.115-139, April 1996.
  26. Ammar B. A. Gharbi and Fathi Salam: Implementation and Test Results of a Chip for the Separation of Mixed Signals. ISCAS '95, vol.1, pp.271-274, Seattle, WA, USA.
  27. Ammar B. A. Gharbi and Fathi Salam: Implementation and Test Results of a Chip for the Separation of Mixed Signals. IEEE transactions on Circuits and Systems, vol.42, no.11, pp.748-751, November 1995.
  28. Ammar B. A. Gharbi and Fathi Salam: Separation of Mixed Signals in Dynamic Environments: Formulation and some Implementation. 37th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems'94, vol. 1, pp. 587-599, Lafayette, LA, USA.
  29. F. M. Salam, An Adaptive Network for Blind Separation of Independent Signals, in Proc. of International Symposium on Circuits and Systems. 1993: Chicago, IL. p. 431–434.
  30. Ammar B. A. Gharbi and Fathi Salam: Blind Separtion of Independent Sources in Linear Dynamical Media. NOLTA'93, Hawaii.

 

Neural and other VLSI Implementations with their Applications


  1. Khurram Waheed, Keyur Desai, Fathi M. Salam: A Low Power Frequency Synthesizer with an Integrated Negative Transconductance LC-Tuned VCO ; in 2003 IEEE International Conference on Robotics, Intelligent Systems & Signal processing RISSP-2003, May 19-24, 2003 Changsha, Hunan, China, to appear
  2. Khurram Waheed, Keyur Desai, Parmoon Seddighrad and Fathi M. Salam: A Completely Integrated, Low Noise, Low Power CMOS Frequency Synthesizer for GSM Communications, 45th IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Tulsa, Oklahoma August 4-7, 2002, Vol 3, Page(s) 540-543
  3. Khurram Waheed; Fathi M. Salam: A Mixed Mode Neuro-VLSI Chip for High Speed Applications, Proceedings of the 44th IEEE Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, August 14-17, 2001 - Dayton, Ohio, Page(s): 580-583 vol 2. (1st Runner-Up -Student Paper Contest)
  4. Waheed K. and Salam F. M. : A Mixed-Mode Self-Programming Neural System-on-Chip For Real-Time Applications; Submitted to INNS-IEEE International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IJCNN, 2001.
  5. Waheed K. and Salam F. M. : A Mixed-Mode Design for a Self-programming Chip For real-time estimation, prediction, and control; Proc. of the 43rd IEEE Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Lansing, MI, Aug 8-11, 2000, Page(s): 810-813 vol. 2
  6. Salam, F.M.: A neuro-chip for real-time learning, processing and control, Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1998. ISCAS '98., Volume: 3 , 1998 Page(s): 54 -57 vol.3
  7. Salam, F.M.: A neuro-chip with temporal learning: test results for signal/shape generation, Conference Record of the Thirty-First Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems & Computers, 1997. , Volume: 2 , 1998 Page(s): 1141 -1145 vol.2
  8. Hwa-Joon Oh; Salam, F.M.: Design of a temporal learning chip for signal generation and classification, Proceedings of 1997 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1997., ISCAS '97., Volume: 1 , 1997 Page(s): 689 -692 vol.1
  9. Ammar B. A. Gharbi and Fathi Salam: Implementation and Experimental Results of a Chip for the Separation of Mixed and Filtered Signals. Journal of Circuits, Systems and Computers, vol.6, no.2, pp.115-139, April 1996.
  10. Ammar B. A. Gharbi and Fathi Salam: Implementation and Test Results of a Chip for the Separation of Mixed Signals. ISCAS '95, vol.1, pp.271-274, Seattle, WA, USA.
  11. Ammar B. A. Gharbi and Fathi Salam: Implementation and Test Results of a Chip for the Separation of Mixed Signals. IEEE transactions on Circuits and Systems, vol.42, no.11, pp.748-751, November 1995.
  12. Salam, F.M.A.; Erten, G.: An Adaptive Neuro/Fuzzy CMOS chip, Proceedings of 1995 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1995. ISCAS '95., Volume: 3 , 1995 Page(s): 2329 vol.3
  13. Erten, G.; Salam, F.M.A.: Hybrid analog/digital VLSI chip for template matching, Proceedings of the 37th Midwest Symposium onCircuits and Systems, 1994., Volume: 2 , 1994 Page(s): 868 -871 vol.2
  14. Vedula, S.S.; Salam, F.M.A.; Erten, G.: Subthreshold analog circuit for computing the maximal principal component of 3-D data, Proceedings of 1994 IEEE International Symposium onCircuits and Systems, 1994. ISCAS '94., Volume: 6 , 1994 Page(s): 371 -374 vol.6
  15. Hwa-Joon Oh; Salam, F.M.A.: Analog CMOS implementation of neural network for adaptive signal processing, Proceedings of the 1994 IEEE International Symposium onCircuits and Systems, 1994. ISCAS '94., Volume: 6 , 1994 Page(s): 503 -506 vol.6
  16. Salam, F.M.A.; Vedula, S.S.; Erten, G.: Low power analog chips for the computation of the maximal principal component, Proceedings of 1994 IEEE International Conference on Neural Networks, 1994. IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence., Volume: 7 , 1994 Page(s): 4746 -4749 vol.7
  17. Hwa-Joon Oh; Salam, F.M.A.: Neural Network design using Modular Neural Chips with On-chip Learning, Proceedings of 1994 IEEE International Conference onNeural Networks, 1994. IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence., Volume: 4 , 1994 Page(s): 2070 -2073 vol.4
  18. Ling, B.; Vedula, S.S.; Salam, F.M.A.: Subthreshold analog feature matching circuits with large output voltages, Proceedings of the 36th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1993., 1993 Page(s): 1251 -1254 vol.2
  19. Salam, F.M.A.; Vedula, S.S.: Data-driven subthreshold analog circuit that computes principal components, Proceedings of the 36th Midwest Symposium onCircuits and Systems, 1993., 1993 Page(s): 770 -773 vol.1

 

Neural Networks, Evolutionary Learning with Applications


  1. Khurram Waheed, Kim Weaver, Fathi M. Salam: An Entropy based Robust Speech Boundary Detection Algorithm for Realistic Noisy Environments; in 2003 IEEE-INNS Joint International Conference on Neural Networks, July 20-24, 2003, Portland OR, to appear.
  2. Khurram Waheed, Kim Weaver, Fathi M. Salam: A Robust Algorithm for Detecting Speech Segments Using an Entropic Contrast; in 45th IEEE International Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Oklahoma August 4-7, 2002, Vol 3, Page(s) 328-331.
  3. Khurram Waheed and Fathi M. Salam: A Mixed-Mode Design for a Self-programming Chip For real-time estimation, prediction, and control; Proc. of the 43rd IEEE Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Lansing, MI, Aug 8-11, 2000, (to be printed)
  4. Salam, F.; Xi, N.; Nowak, R.; Tarn, T.J.; Highstein, S.: Learning in the eye movement of squirrel monkeys for object tracking 42nd Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 2000. , Volume: 2 , 1999 Page(s): 783 -786
  5. Salam, F.M.; Erten, G.: Sensor fusion by principal and independent component decomposition using neural networks Proceedings of IEEE/SICE/RSJ International Conference on Multisensor Fusion and Integration for Intelligent Systems, 1999. MFI '99.. 1999 , 1999 Page(s): 211 -215
  6. Erten, G.; Salam, F.M.: Modified cellular neural network architecture for integrated image sensing and processing Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1999. ISCAS '99. , Volume: 5 , 1999 Page(s): 120 -123 vol.5
  7. Erten, G.; Salam, F.M.: Cellular mixed signal pixel array for real time image processing, Conference Record of the Thirty-First Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems & Computers, 1997. , Volume: 2 , 1998 Page(s): 1146 -1150 vol.2
  8. Salam, F.M.: A neuro-chip with temporal learning: test results for signal/shape generation, Conference Record of the Thirty-First Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems & Computers, 1997. , Volume: 2 , 1998 Page(s): 1141 -1145 vol.2
  9. Salam, F.M.: A neuro-chip for real-time learning, processing and control, Proceedings of the 1998 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1998. ISCAS '98., Volume: 3 , 1998 Page(s): 54 -57 vol.3
  10. Salam, F.M.: A neuro-chip with temporal learning: test results for signal/shape generation, Conference Record of the Thirty-First Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems & Computers, 1997. , Volume: 2 , 1998 Page(s): 1141 -1145 vol.2
  11. Erten, G.; Salam, F.M.: Cellular mixed signal pixel array for real time image processing, Conference Record of the Thirty-First Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems & Computers, 1997., Volume: 2 , 1998 Page(s): 1146 -1150 vol.2
  12. Salam, F.M.; Piwek, C.; Erten, G.; Grotjohn, T.; Asmussen, J.: Modeling of a plasma processing machine for semiconductor wafer etching using energy-functions-based neural networks, IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Volume: 5 Issue: 6 , Nov. 1997 Page(s): 598 -613
  13. Hwa-Joon Oh; Salam, F.M.: Design of a temporal learning chip for signal generation and classification, Proceedings of 1997 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1997., ISCAS '97., Volume: 1 , 1997 Page(s): 689 -692 vol.1
  14. G. Erten, A. Gharbi, F. Salam, T. Grotjohn, J. Asmussen: Using Neural Networks to Control the Process of Plasma Etching and Deposition. IEEE Proc. of Interantional Conference on Neural Networks'96, pp. 1091-1096, Washington D.C., USA.
  15. Salam, F.M.A.; Erten, G.; Vedula, S.; Hwa-Joon Oh: Nonlinear projection to submanifolds using neural networks with circuit realization and its application to data reduction, Proceedings of 1996 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1996. ISCAS '96., Connecting the World., Volume: 3 , 1996 Page(s): 578 -581 vol.3
  16. G. Erten, A. Gharbi, F. Salam, T. Grotjohn, J. Asmussen: Using Neural Networks to Control the Process of Plasma Etching and Deposition. IEEE Proc. of Interantional Conference on Neural Networks'96, pp. 1091-1096, Washington D.C., USA.
  17. Fathi Salam and Ammar B.Gharbi: Temporal Neuro-Control of Idle Engine Speed. IEEE Proc. of International Symposium on Intelligent Control'96, pp. 396-401, Dearborn, MI, USA.
  18. Salam, F.M.A.; Erten, G.: An adaptive neuro/fuzzy CMOS chip, Proceedings of 1995 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1995. ISCAS '95., Volume: 3 , 1995 Page(s): 2329 vol.3
  19. Erten, G.; Salam, F.M.A.: Hybrid analog/digital VLSI chip for template matching, Proceedings of the 37th Midwest Symposium onCircuits and Systems, 1994., Volume: 2 , 1994 Page(s): 868 -871 vol.2
  20. Hwa-Joon Oh; Salam, F.M.A.: Analog CMOS implementation of neural network for adaptive signal processing, Proceedings of the 1994 IEEE International Symposium onCircuits and Systems, 1994. ISCAS '94., Volume: 6 , 1994 Page(s): 503 -506 vol.6
  21. Benromdhane, S.; Salam, F.M.A.: Computationally-improved optimal filtering for supervised learning [feedforward neural nets], Proceedings of 1994 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1994. ISCAS '94., Volume: 6 , 1994 Page(s): 419 -422 vol.6
  22. Hwa-Joon Oh; Salam, F.M.A.: 4/spl times/4/spl times/2 neural network design using modular neural chips with on-chip learning, Proceedings of 1994 IEEE International Conference onNeural Networks, 1994. IEEE World Congress on Computational Intelligence., Volume: 4 , 1994 Page(s): 2070 -2073 vol.4
  23. Ling, B.; Vedula, S.S.; Salam, F.M.A.: Subthreshold analog feature matching circuits with large output voltages, Proceedings of the 36th Midwest Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1993., 1993 Page(s): 1251 -1254 vol.2
  24. Ling, B.; Salam, F.M.A.: Persistence of equilibria under weight variation of feedback continuous-time neural network, Proceedings of 1993 IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, 1993., ISCAS '93, May 1993 Page(s): 2160 -2163 vol.4
  25. Ahmad, Maqbool; Salam, F.M.A.: Dynamic Learning Using Exponential Energy Functions, Proceedings of the International Joint Conference on Neural Networks Baltimore, Maryland, June 7-11, 1992

 

Optimal and Non-Linear Control


  1. Jian Yu; Salam, F.M.; Fayaz: An optimization-based adaptive nonlinear observer , ICASSP '00. Proceedings. 2000 IEEE International Conference on A. Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, 2000. , Volume: 1 , 2000 Page(s): 25 -28 vol.1
  2. Salam, F.; Khalil, H.; Radcliffe, C.; Shaw, S.: Development of a course sequence in sensing and control for automotive systems Decision and Control, Proceedings of the 38th IEEE Conference on , Volume: 1 , 1999 Page(s): 375 -380 vol.1
  3. Salam, F.M.; Xi, N.: Integrated photo and acceleration sensing module for robot planning and control, Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Volume: 2 , 1999 Page(s): 1293 -1298 vol.2