BioFluids   Magnetic   Resonance   Diagnostics   Laboratory

Departments involved:
      Department of Mechanical Engineering
      Department of Radiology
Centers and groups involved:
      Biomedical Imaging Research Center (BIRC)
      Biomedical Engineering Research Group

R E S E A R C H     I N T E R E S T S

  • Biomedical Imaging using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
    • Magnetic Resonance Microscopy
    • Diffusion-Weighted Imaging
    • Velocimetry Protocols
    • Perfusion Protocols
  • Biomedical Modeling to Develop Quantitative Imaging Diagnostics and Optimize Imaging Protocols
  • Bioreactors, Microfluidic Systems and Process Engineering
  • Fluid Mechanics and Dynamics
  • Transport Phenomena, Heat/Mass Transfer
  • Chaotic Segregation

R E S E A R C H     T H R U S T S

  • Thrust 1: Noninvasive and nondestructive Magnetic Resonance diagnostics for biological or bioengineered soft tissues integrated with biomechanical models

  • Thrust 2: Integration of fluid mechanics and Magnetic Resonance protocols for biophysical flows and biochemical reactors

  • Thrust 3: Micro-MRI and molecular MRI to investigate and treat muscle atrophy due to musculoskeletal diseases and injury

High-resolution axial spin echo image of a rat brain (voxel size =
100 x 100 x 100 cubic microns)

C U R R E N T     R E S E A R C H     P R O J E C T S

  • Development and Optimization of Quantitative Biomedical Imaging Diagnostics Tools (2006–now):   Implementation and validation of novel reconstruction methods based on functional and molecular MRI (e.g. diffusion-weighted and X-nuclei imaging) for biomedical studies (neurodegenerative and developmental diseases, ...).

  • Reconstruction of neuronal fibers in rat brain using diffusion-weighted MRI and a quantitative analysis of q-space MRI data (QUAQ) (from left to right): high-resolution spin echo image (100-micron in-plane resolution) used for reference, low-resolution T2-weighted spin echo image (600-micron in-plane resolution) showing the typical resolution used for diffusion-weighted MRI, fiber reconstruction assuming one neuron bundle per voxel and fiber reconstruction assuming up to two fibers per voxel using 120 diffusion-weighted images.

  • Investigation and treatment of muscle atrophy using stem cells (2006–now):   Dr. Robert Wiseman (Department of Radiology, Director of the Biomedical Imaging Research Center) and I are investigating the physiological mechanisms of muscle atrophy due to musculoskeletal diseases and trauma, by using our combined expertise in muscle physiology, reagent cell design, and MRI. Muscle atrophy is commonly caused by aging, cerebrovascular accidents (stroke), spinal cord injury, peripheral nerve injury, diabetes, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (a.k.a. Lou Gehrig's disease). The goal is to gain a deeper understanding of the development of muscle atrophy, and propose treatments based on stem cell therapy.

  • Cell tracking of reagent cells using MRI: The reagent cells are immature muscle cells C2C12 with dual label: Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) for optical techniques and superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIOs, transfected using Poly-L-Lysine, PLL). Spin-echo images (a) right after injection (TE/TR = 10.5/8000 ms, 0.1 x 0.1 x 1 mm voxel), then (b) 7, (c) 14, and (d) 21 days after injection (for (b) to (d), TE/TR = 7.7/6000 ms, 0.2 x 0.2 x 1 mm voxel). The signal drops due to the presence of SPIOs, as marked in red, and the injection spots in the anterior and posterior left hind leg can be tracked from day 1 to 22 (the mouse position varied from day 1 to 22, so the spots in the right hind leg do not always appear in the same slice).

  • Investigation of atherosclerosis in the carotid artery (2007–now):   Drs. Kevin DeMarco and David Zhu (Department of Radiology, Biomedical Imaging Research Center) and I are investigating atherosclerosis in the carotid artery by combining our expertise in cardiovascular diseases, MRI, fluid dynamics, and biomechanics.

  • Biomaterials engineering and mechanics: (2006–now):   Noninvasive and nondestructive imaging of structure and function of cell-seeded hydrogels with Drs. Baek (Mech. Eng.), Wright (Mech. Eng.), and Chan (Chem. Eng. Mat. Sci.).

  • Characterization of Complex Separation / Mixing Rreactors using MRI (2006–now):   Development of quantitative efficiency measures for complex multiphase reactors with no or limited optical access using standard and new MRI protocols.

  • Passive vortex micromixer (PVM) for two fluids with 8 inlets (bottom) and one outlet (top): series of 26 contiguous spin-echo images (TE/TR = 11/6000 ms, NEX = 4, 0.2 x 0.2 x 1 mm voxel) acquired at BIRC on the 9.4T micro-imager. The PVM was filled with pure water.

  • Design and Fabrication of a Universal Sample Holder for Vertical MRI scanners (2006–now):   The vertical wide-bore 9.4T Bruker NMR spectrometer at the Biomedical Imaging Research Center in the Biomedical and Physical Sciences Building at MSU has recently been upgraded with micro-imaging capabilities and needs a sample holder capable of handling a variety of systems: brain and muscle imaging on live mice, small-scale mixing and separation reactors, diagnostics of engineered tissue constructs (...).


  • BioFluids Magnetic Resonance Diagnostics Laboratory (Room 3533 Engineering Building):   This 630 ft² wet lab is currently under development and host manufacturing and testing facilities for biofluidic systems. Machining tools (drill press, band saw, miscellaneous handheld power tools), a UV/Vis spectrophotometer, HPLC, and a programmable infusion/withdrawal dual-stage syringe pump (KDS210P model, KD Scientific Inc., Holliston, MA, USA) are readily available. The laboratory has a sink, a drain, RO water, and air conditioning.

  • Biomedical Imaging Research Center (BIRC):   one site for micro-imaging and spectroscopy, and one site for clinical imaging.
    • In the Biomedical and Physical Sciences building: Approximately 5,000 ft² of combined lab space are assigned to BIRC in the Department of Physiology in rooms 3100, 3105, 3107, 3110 in the Biomedical and Physical Sciences Building. The imaging labs include a vertical wide-bore Bruker 9.4 T AVANCE spectrometer with micro-imaging and X-nuclei (1H, 13C, 19F, 23Na, 31P) capabilities, used for small animals and spectroscopy (bore ID: 35 mm). An equipment set-up as well as a fully-equipped electronics shop for design of MRI coils, RF filters, and other ancillary equipment are located there. A small machine shop is also available to modify experimental apparatus and NMR/MRI probes. The wet lab is equipped for general biochemistry, including freezers, hoods, centrifuges, UV/Vis spectrophotometer, fluorometer, electronic balances and pH meters (1,000 ft² ). Adjacent laboratories house chemistry facilities belonging to BIRC including HPLC, water baths, and equipment to perform molecular techniques, cell culture hood, incubators, and microscopes. This room also houses an epifluorescence microscope for intracellular calcium, green fluorescent protein and endogenous fluorescence (NADH) determinations. Adjacent to the laboratory is a 275 ft² room dedicated to tissue culture, a 250 ft² cold room and a 275 ft² dark room. The laboratories have fume hoods, sinks, distilled/RO water, and air conditioning.

    • In the Radiology building: A 3T GE Signa Excite whole-body clinical MRI scanner entirely dedicated to research activities is located in the Radiology building. Several RF coils are available to image the brain, neck, knee, and thorax, with parallel imaging capabilities.

G R O U P     M E M B E R S

  • L. Guy Raguin, Ph.D. (Department of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Radiology, Michigan State University)
                  >> View my COMMUNITY OF SCIENCE PROFILE


  • James V. Beck, Ph.D. (Emeritus, Department of Mechanical Engineering, MSU;
    Beck Engineering Consultants Co.)
  • Satish S. Udpa, Ph.D. (Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, MSU)
  • Mr. Shantanu Majumdar (PhD candidate, Electrical & Computer Engineering, MSU,
    research assistant, Spring 2007 - now)

  • Mr. Christopher D. Bolin (MS candidate, Mechanical Engineering, research assistant, Fall 2006 - Fall 2008)

  • Mr. Andrew P. White (MS candidate, Mechanical Engineering, research assistant, Fall 2007 - Fall 2008)

  • Mr. Daryoosh Derakhshan (BS candidate, Physiology, research aid, Summer 2007 - Fall 2007).

  • Mr. Atha Khan (MS candidate, Mechanical Engineering, research assistant, Summer 2007 - Fall 2007).

  • Ms. Xuhui Zhao (PhD candidate, Mechanical Engineering, MSU, research aid - Fall 2006).
  • Mr. Gaël Cordier (Engineering Diploma candidate, Ecole Catholique d'Arts et Métiers, Lyon, France, research aid, August 2007 - January 2007)

    Axial views of human calf: T2-weighted fast spin-echo images (0.6 x 0.6 x 3 mm voxel) with TE = 30 ms (top) and 100 ms (bottom). Hit Reload to synchronize the images.

    Group for diffusion and perfusion protocol optimization - Human calf study at 3T: our calf volunteer, Gaël Cordier (left), with Dr. Guy Raguin (top right), Shantanu Majumdar (bottom right - on the left), and Dr. David Zhu (bottom right - on the right).

G R O U P     P U B L I C A T I O N S     &     P R E S E N T A T I O N S

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S O M E     P A S T     R E S E A R C H     P R O J E C T S

  • Quantitative diffusion-weighted MRI (2004–2006):   Development of a reconstruction method for quantitative diffusion-weighted MRI tractography: QUAQ.

  • Micro-MRI velocimetry for microfluidic systems (2004–2006):   Development and comparison of micro-MRI velocimetry protocols for microfluidic systems.

  • Characterization of physical and transport properties in hydrogels via NMR/MRI (2005–2006):   Extraction of physical and transport properties of various hydrogels (Agar, PEG, HEMA) using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to help design, fabricate and characterize novel hydrogel-bridged nanofluidic polycarbonate membranes.

  • Theoretical, numerical and experimental study of a novel separation system (2000 - 2004):   Investigated kinematics, separation and chaotic advection in complex 3-D swirling flows via MRI techniques (spin-tagging and phase-contrast velocimetry, pulsed-field gradient dispersion measurements) and numerical analysis of the dynamic motion equations.


C O N T A C T     I N F O R M A T I O N

Biomedical Imaging Research Center
Michigan State University
Mail:   3100 Biomedical and Physical Sciences Building
East Lansing, MI   48824,   USA

Department of Radiology
Michigan State University
Mail:   184 Radiology
East Lansing, MI   48824,   USA

Webpage maintained by Dr. Guy Raguin, Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Radiology, Michigan State University