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Use of Ozonation in Combination with Nanocrystalline Ceramic Membranes for Controlling Disinfection By-products
Principal Investigators: Susan Masten, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Melissa Jane Baumann, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science; Simon Davies, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Research Assistants: Bhavana Karnik, Nikhil Theyyuni
Sponsor: Environmental Protection Agency




Abstract

The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility of using a combined ozonation and membrane filtration system to control disinfection by-products (DBPs) precursors in drinking water treatment process. Conventional ceramic membranes and ceramic membranes coated with a nano-crystalline catalyst that decomposes ozone are being used in this study. The particular objectives are:
  1. To develop methods for the preparation of a nano-crystalline ceramic membranes which catalyze the decomposition of ozone and foulants and to characterize these membranes.
  2. To determine the effect of ozonation on membrane fouling in filtration systems using both conventional and catalytic membranes.
  3. For the source waters studied, determine the effect of ozonation on the properties of natural organic matter and relate this information to the overall performance of the system.
  4. To investigate the effect of control parameters on the fouling rate and product water quality using selected conventional and catalytic membranes.
The fouling experiments indicate that, in the absence of ozonation, a decline in permeate flux over time occurs. The injection of ozone just prior to filtration results in a recovery of the flux to about 85% to 90% of the initial flux. The effects of ozonation resulted in the degradation of NOM and caused changes in the NOM structure, which reduced the reactivity of the percursors of disinfection by-products towards ozone. With an ozone concentration of 1.5 g/m3 and a 1 kD membrane, water from Lake Lansing, a borderline eutrophic lake with a TOC ranging from 8-12 mg/L, was treated to meet water-quality requirements of the Stage 2 D/DBPs Rule.



We expect to develop and demonstrate that treatment using catalytic nano-crystalline ceramic membranes in combination with ozonation is more effective than conventional methods, including ozonation, and other membrane processes in terms of operational performance and removal of DBPs.



Resulting Publications / Presentations
  • Karnik BS, Chen KC, Jaglowski DR, Davies SH, Baumann MJ, Masten SJ. Combined Ozonation-Nanofiltration for Drinking Water Treatment. Presented at the 78th American Chemical Society Colloid and Surface Science Symposium, Yale University, New Haven, CT, June 20-23, 2004.
  • Karnik BS, Chen KC, Jaglowski DR, Davies SH, Baumann MJ, Masten SJ. Effect of combined ozonation-nanofiltration on water quality. Presented at the 228th American Chemical Society National Meeting - Oxidation and Reduction Technologies for Water Treatment, Philadelphia, PA, August 22-26, 2004.
  • Karnik BS, Davies SH, Chen KC, Jaglowski DR, Baumann MJ, Masten SJ. Effects of ozonation on the permeate flux of nanocrystalline ceramic membranes. Water Research 39, pp 728-734, 2005.
  • Karnik BS, Davies SH, Baumann MJ, Masten SJ. The effects of combined ozonation and filtration on disinfection byproduct formation. Water Research 39, pp. 2839-2850, 2005.
  • Karnik BS, Davies SH, Baumann MJ, Masten SJ. Fabrication of catalytic membranes for the treatment of drinking water using combined ozonation and ultrafiltration. Submitted to Environmental Science and Technology, 2005.
Future Work
  • Investigate other membrane materials that may be better catalysts of ozone decomposition
  • Improved understanding of the effects of operational conditions (e.g. ozone dosage, TMP) on performance
  • Studies using models foulants, e.g., polysaccharides, silica, humic materials
  • Investigate the fate of other DBPs, e.g., bromate


Phone: (517) 355-5107 Fax: (517) 432-1827 E-mail: cee@egr.msu.edu
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
3546 Engineering Building Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 48824-1226