2016 Civil Engineering Abstracts

Poster Number: CE-01

Title: Influence of Temperature Induced Bond Degradation on Fire Resistance of RC Beams

Authors: Ankit Agrawal; Venkatesh Kodur

Abstract: Reinforced concrete (RC) beams exposed to fire, lose capacity due to temperature induced deterioration in mechanical properties of both concrete and rebar. This degradation in strength properties and elastic modulus, accompanied with differential thermal expansion, causes loss of inter-facial bond between rebar and concrete. The stress transfer between concrete and rebar, and hence the moment (or shear) capacity of a RC beam, is influenced by the extent of bond deterioration. In current practice, perfect bond is assumed between rebar and concrete while evaluating flexural capacity of RC beams under fire conditions. No reliable guidelines for incorporating bond degradation in fire resistance analysis of RC beams are available. Only a limited number of publications have appeared on this problem; and a fundamental understanding of the relationship between bond and temperature is still lacking, particularly for newer types of concrete. to address these knowledge gaps, both experimental and numerical investigations are being conducted at MSU. As part of material level tests, six different types of double tension pull-out DTP) specimens have been fabricated using different combinations of normal strength concrete, high strength concrete (HSC), fibers (polypropylene or steel fibers) and rebar types (smooth and ribbed bars). The DTP setup ensures presence of a longitudinal tensile stress in concrete surrounding the ribs. As part of numerical studies, a finite element based numerical model is developed that incorporates effect of temperature induced bond degradation is incorporated using zero thickness bond-link elements. Results show distinct influence of bond degradation on fire resistance of RC beams.

This work was supported in part by United States Agency for International Development (through Pakistan-US Science and Technology Cooperative Program grant PGA-2000003665) and Michigan State University

 

Poster Number: CE-02

Title: Utilizing Indigenous Materials for Building Construction

Authors: Areej Almalkawi; Parviz Soroushian

Abstract: Modern buildings are generally constructed with materials such as Portland cement concrete, steel, timber, pre-fabricated gypsum panels, masonry units, asphalt, plastics, polymer composites, and insulating foams. Building systems incorporating these materials are designed to meet structural safety, fire resistance, energy-efficiency, quality of life, and durability requirements. Major economic and sustainability benefits can be realized in building construction through maximum use of locally available construction materials and resources. The building systems designed to make maximum use of indigenous materials should still provide adequate safety under relevant loads, quality of life, energy-efficiency, and durability. Seismic, blast, impact and wind resistance are among the considerations in development of these building systems. The main thrust of this project is to develop building systems which employ locally available resources to efficiently meet stringent structural (load-bearing and seismic energy absorption), moisture barrier, weathering resistance, thermal insulation, fire resistance, health and sustainability requirements. A sandwich composite is devised as the primary module for development of the building system. This module comprises indigenous ferrocement skins and a lightweight cement-bonded natural fiber core. Indigenous cementitious binders play an enabling role in development of the sandwich composite. Strategies were devised for development of cementitious binders using indigenous raw materials which are abundantly available globally. These strategies emphasize simple processing of raw materials using locally available resources. The raw materials selected for development of indigenous cementitious binders include volcanic deposits, laterite clay, gypsum, limestone, soda ash, and natron. Various indigenous plant extracts are also considered as additives in cementitious binders to impart set retardation, activation and other effects.

 

Poster Number: CE-03

Title: Performance of Reinforced Concrete Columns Under Hydrocarbon Fire Exposure

Authors: Saleh Alogla; Venkatesh Kodur

Abstract: Concrete is the most widely used material in construction industry worldwide due to numerous advantages it offers over other materials including its superior fire performance. This high fire resistance of concrete is mostly attributed to its low thermal conductivity, higher heat capacity, and slower degradation in mechanical properties. However, concrete experiences degradation in the form of spalling, cracking or excess deformations all of which can eventually lead to failure of concrete structural members. Reinforced concrete columns, in particular, are crucial to structural integrity of structures and need to withstand fire exposure. Although performance of RC columns is well established under standard (building) fire conditions, the behavior of RC columns under hydrocarbon fires is not fully established. Under hydrocarbon fires, temperatures increase at a very rapid pace leading to high thermal gradients which in turn can induce high creep strain in RC columns. To study the performance of RC columns under hydrocarbon fires a series of numerical studies are performed on RC columns of different characteristics. Effect of high-temperature transient creep, under hydrocarbon fire exposure, is specifically accounted for in the fire resistance analysis to evaluate realistic response of RC columns. Results from the analysis indicate that RC columns experience rapid degradation in capacity under hydrocarbon fires, much higher than that under standard fires. This is mainly due to the higher temperature gradients and temperature induced creep strains. Results from the analysis also show that accounting for high-temperature transient creep greatly improves predicted deformations and failure time of RC columns. Neglecting high-temperature transient creep can lead to unrealistic behavior and un-conservative fire resistance predictions, particularly under hydrocarbon fire conditions.

 

Poster Number: CE-04

Title: Analytical Solution to Earthquake-Induced Nonlinear Inelastic Second-Order Moments in Slender Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns

Authors: Ata Babazadeh; Rigoberto Burgueño

Abstract: A closed-form solution to the bending moment profile along reinforced concrete (RC) cantilever columns responding inelastically under end loads was derived by combing inelastic section response and nonlinear structural mechanics. The solution led to a mathematical expression for the extent of the plastic region (Lpr) on slender RC columns, which is significantly affected by nonlinear second-order moments, known as P-δ. The effects of nonlinear geometry caused by column bending deformation in conjunction with the dramatic decrease of flexural stiffness due to reinforcement yielding were considered in the solution’s derivation. Nonlinear geometry was ensured by the balance of external and internal forces on the deformed configuration of the column. Inelastic material properties were represented by bilinear moment-curvature cross-section response with reduced post-yield flexural stiffness. The results from the nonlinear inelastic solution were verified against experimental data from three large-scale slender RC columns; and the accuracy of the proposed solution for predicting experimental Lpr values was compared against other linear and nonlinear models. It was found that geometrically nonlinear models generally offer a considerable advantage over a linear one for predicting the extent of Lpr. Yet, statistical analyses of the error measures showed that the inelastic solution provides a significant improvement in accuracy for predicting P-δ effects on Lpr. Therefore, use of the developed nonlinear inelastic solution is essential for accurate prediction of the second-order effects on the plastic region of slender RC columns subjected to axial and lateral loads.

This work was supported in part by U.S. National Science Foundation

 

Poster Number: CE-05

Title: Impact of Pavement Structural Response on Rolling Resistance and Vehicle Fuel Economy

Authors: Danilo Balzarini; Imen Zaabar; Karim Chatti

Abstract: Reduction in vehicle fuel consumption is one of the main benefits considered in technical and economic evaluations of road improvements considering its significance. Analysis of the effects of pavement rolling resistance on vehicle fuel economy and emissions needs to consider the total system of the pavement, road geometry, vehicles, and climate. Surface roughness, texture, and structural response are the main pavement characteristics influencing rolling resistance. This project investigates the increase in vehicle energy consumption caused by pavement structural response. It was proven that this energy is equal to the dissipated energy in the pavement itself due to the deformation of pavement materials under passing vehicles, including delayed deformation of viscoelastic materials and other damping effects that consume energy in the pavement and subgrade. This mechanism has also been characterized in terms of the energy required for a rolling wheel to move uphill, facing the positive slope formed by the local deflection basin caused by the delayed deformation of the pavement. Pavement structural response to moving vehicles was calculated using models of both asphalt and concrete pavements, under different conditions of vehicle speed, and pavement temperature. Energy loss and excess fuel consumption were then compared for the two pavement types. Preliminary results show that commercial trucks driven over concrete pavements can save up to 1.5% in fuel consumption compared to when driven over asphalt pavements. Although such a percentage seems small, the energy and money savings become significant considering the massive vehicle fleet in the US.

This work was supported in part by This work is sponsored by the California Department of Transportation.

 

Poster Number: CE-06

Title: Performance of Fiber Reinforced Polymer Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Slabs Subjected to Fire

Authors: Pratik Bhatt; Venkatesh Kodur

Abstract: Fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP) are extensively used in the construction industry for repair and retrofitting of reinforced concrete (RC) structures. When used in buildings, appropriate fire safety requirements for structural members must be strictly fulfilled, as performance of structural members is affected significantly when exposed to fire conditions. Numerous experimental and numerical studies are available in the literature investigating the behavior of FRP strengthened RC flexural members (beams and slabs) at ambient temperature. However, very limited information is available in the literature, in terms of both experimental and numerical studies, regarding the behavior of FRP strengthened flexural members at elevated temperature. In particular, there are no numerical studies predicting the behavior of FRP strengthened RC slabs at elevated temperature. The aim of this study is to develop a three-dimensional finite element model, using ABAQUS®, to analyze the performance of FRP strengthened RC slabs, subjected to fire. The model would be validated by comparing the predicted performance with the experimentally measured performance of FRP strengthened slabs subjected to fire, available in literature. The validated model can be applied to quantify the critical factors governing fire performance of FRP strengthened slabs, when subjected to fire.

 

Poster Number: CE-07

Title: Splitting Tensile Strength of Ultra-High Performance Concrete at Elevated Temperature

Authors: Xu Dong; Venkatesh Kodur

Abstract: Concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials for civil engineering infrastructure. In recent years, new types of concrete, such as ultra-high performance concrete(UHPC), are extensively developed to improve strength, durability, and sustainability. Currently, there is no research data to evaluate fire-resistance properties of UHPC. During fire conditions, spalling may occur in UHPC which can lead to loss of layers of concrete, and expose steel reinforcement. This direct exposure may result in reinforcing bars subjecting to fire directly, and this will lead to loss of stiffness and strength of structural elements. Splitting tensile strength is one of the most important property that resist spalling. Therefore, tests are carried out to study on the splitting tensile strength of UHPC from room temperature to 600˚C. Data collected from tests is used to compare splitting tensile strength of UHPC with normal strength concrete(NSC) and high strength concrete(HSC) at various temperature.

 

Poster Number: CE-08

Title: Behavior of Composite Beam-to-Box Column Connection in Steel Buildings

Authors: Mohammadreza Eslami; Venkatesh Kodur; Hisashi Namba

Abstract: Connections in a structural system play a critical role in transferring loads from one member to the other. Behavior of steel framed buildings during earthquake is highly dependent on the performance of beam-to-column connections. The prequalified beam-to-column connections presented in US building code (AISC manual) are limited to connections comprising of I beam to wide flange columns; On the other hand, Japanese steel construction has moved towards a newer building system consisting of cold-formed box columns and wide flange steel beams. Currently, box columns are widely employed as a part of Seismic Moment Resisting Frame buildings (SMRF) in Japan. However, a box column has two webs at each side, but no web in the center where the beam web is connected. This is different from US practice, where wide flange H sections are used and there is a web at the center. This may cause an increase in the deformation of box column flange in bending moment and result in out-of-plane deformations. This research discusses out-of-plane deformations in a box column connected to a composite beam. The force flow pattern and ultimate flexural capacity are evaluated by considering main parameters affecting the deformations: width-to-thickness ratio of box column, height-to-thickness ratio of beam web, yield strength ratios, height-to-width ratio of connection, slab strength and geometry of weld access hole. Equations governing ultimate flexural capacity of web connections are derived. Finite element analysis is utilized to clarify the mechanism of mechanical stress transfer. According to these findings, flexural capacity evaluating method is presented and the accuracy of equations is validated by comparing with published test data.

This work was supported in part by Japan Ministry of Education, Michigan State University

 

Poster Number: CE-09

Title: Developing Safety Performance Functions for Roundabouts Located in the State of Michigan

Authors: Ahmad M. Fawaz; Timothy Gates

Abstract: The percentage of crashes in the state of Michigan which occurred at conventional intersections controlled by traffic signals, stop, or yield signs, is estimated to be around 22.0% of the total crashes in 2011. Roundabouts have been proven to be an effective countermeasure to reduce the number of crashes and injury crashes in previous studies. This study aims to develop safety performance functions for single and multilane roundabouts located in the State of Michigan and then compare them against the NCHRP models. The results indicated that the NCHRP models under predict the total number of crashes for all type of roundabouts.

 

Poster Number: CE-10

Title: Grace-Based Evaluation of Terrestrial Water Storage Variations Simulated by a Global Land Surface Model with Human Impacts

Authors: Farshid Felfelani; Yadu Pokhrel

Abstract: Since the beginning of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission in March 2002, the hydrological research community has extensively utilized the terrestrial water storage (TWS) variations derived from GRACE to evaluate the accuracy of hydrological models as well to constrain water storage simulations. In this study we use TWS anomalies derived from GRACE observations to assess the TWS variations simulated by a global land surface model called the HiGW-MAT [Pokhrel et al., 2015]. HiGW-MAT simulates the exchange of water vapor, energy, and momentum between the land surface and atmosphere on a physical basis and also, takes into account human land-water management such as flow regulation and groundwater pumping. River basins are selected such that all five main groups of Köppen climate classes are represented by characteristic and important rivers. Results show that in relatively uniform climatic regions and large river basins (e.g. Amazon, Niger, Ob, Danube, Mississippi and Xi) the model shows better agreement to GRACE time series compared to the small river basins and variable climatic zones (Churchill, Colorado and Murray). It is also found that for small river basins the water storage amplitude is less or equal to GRACE error and so, the GRACE-based evaluation may not be highly reliable. Furthermore, in most of the regions snow water is around zero and the subsurface water dominates the TWS variations except for high latitudes where snow water peaks precede the subsurface and river storage peaks. This sequence verifies the snow water as the dominant TWS component which infiltrates the river storage and groundwater with a time lag.

 

Poster Number: CE-11

Title: Nondestructive Condition Assessment of Concrete Structure Using NMR

Authors: Iman Harsini; Parviz Soroushian

Abstract: Various forms of concrete deterioration involve microcracking and distortion of the structure of cement hydrates. This project is developing a new non-destructive method for condition assessment of concrete structures using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) principles. NMR and corroborative nondestructive tests are performed on concrete materials subjected to damaging effects of mechanical stress and frost action. The NMR data are found to provide new insight into the response of concrete to external and internal stresses. Changes in the level of constraint and mobility of water in concrete are monitored using nondestructive NMR techniques at different states of damage and deterioration. The NMR method was found to provide indications not only of the formation, propagation and widening of microcracks, but the effects of internal and external stresses on the gel and capillary pore systems of hydrated cement paste. The NMR signals enabled monitoring of the compaction and disordering of the calcium silicate hydrate structure and gel pores under external and internal pressure. Corroborative nondestructive tests involving measurements of the ultrasound pulse velocity and dynamic elastic modulus were used to supplement the nondestructive NMR test data. Optic microscopy was also employed as a destructive means of evaluating microcrack propagation in concrete experiencing damage and deterioration. The NMR data were found to provide more insight into the fundamental aspects of concrete damage mechanisms than other nondestructive test techniques.

This work was supported in part by US DOT

 

Poster Number: CE-12

Title: Implementation of a Decision Framework for Corridor Planning within the Roadside Right-of-Way for Non-Traditional Developments

Authors: Gentjan Heqimi; Timothy Gates; Adam McArthur

Abstract: A spatial decision framework for context-sensitive planning within the roadside Right-of-Way (ROW) was implemented for freeways in the State of Michigan. The framework represents a roadside suitability assessment model which may be used to support decision-making for ROW use and development, particularly those that are non-traditional. The model accommodates a broad range of developments, while considering a diverse range of roadside contextual features, including land cover, environmental and natural features among others. Contextual features were identified, weighted and prioritized based on coordination with state stakeholders. The primary function of the model is to identify areas along the highway corridor that are most (or least) suitable for development within the roadside ROW, as well as providing a relative indication of their overall suitability along a corridor. Various macro and micro level data were used to assess the potential of five non-traditional ROW developments, including solar panels, wind turbines, farming, vegetation management, and green infrastructure. The model was originally applied to a limited freeway network in Michigan. State implementation was based on available datasets and general land use planning importance. The resulting relative index scores for the statewide corridors were generally consistent with standard land-use planning considerations. The final product consists of a compilation of individual maps for each Michigan freeway segment utilizing a global relative scale. Reference data such as mile markers were further provided for geographical referencing purposes.

This work was supported in part by Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT)

 

Poster Number: CE-13

Title: Location Sensitive Snow Effects on Interstate Highway Crashes

Authors: Gentjan Heqimi; Timothy Gates

Abstract: Snowfall affects traffic safety by impacting vehicle performance, driver behavior, and the transportation infrastructure itself. Depending on intensity, snowfall can reduce visibility, pavement friction performance, and vehicle stability and maneuverability. Based on this premise the objective of this study was to investigate location sensitive snow effects on different types of crashes and crash outcomes at various snowfall intervals during winter weather. Using the geostatistical method of Ordinary Kriging, location specific historical snowfall values were estimated for each winter month between 2004 and 2014 along 286 miles of I-94 in southwestern Michigan. Collected data was then spatially joined with crash counts using the Michigan Geographic Framework Statewide All Roads shapefile as basis for the study. Two Negative Binomial Regression models were conducted on the dataset to assess snow effects. Explanatory variables in Model 1 included AADT, segment length, and snowfall. Explanatory variables in Model 2 included AADT, segment length, and four categorical snowfall intervals based on its quantile distribution. The results indicated that snow has a positive statistically significant effect on winter crashes for all of the types of crashes and crash outcomes analyzed. These effects are highest for those segments experiencing the largest amount of snowfall. Among the crash types, crashes involving a Truck and/or Bus experienced the highest percent increase in crash occurrence for each additional percent increase in snowfall. While for crash outcomes, Property Damage Only crashes were shown to be more susceptible to snowfall compared to Injury crashes.

This work was supported in part by Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT)

 

Poster Number: CE-14

Title: Bending Rigidity of Twisted Fibers

Authors: Ali Imani Azad; Roozbeh Dargazany

Abstract: This research concentrates on developing an understanding from mechanical behavior and electrical response to mechanical excites in twisted CNT fibers. The application of carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers have been highly increased due to their light weight, high strength, and high electrical conductivity. However, their complex hierarchical structure which consists of numerous CNTs in a cross section with different winding angles around the fiber’s axis causes considerable performance loss in translation of mechanical and electrical properties from CNT to fiber. Up today lack of understanding on the load transfer mechanism (LTM) in CNT fibers has barriered maximizing the performance of the CNT fibers. Among the several mechanical properties, bending properties is unknown and also very complicated in the twisted fibers. Several studies have been performed on this problem, but still there is big gap between results from analytical models and experimental results. As a part of LTM process understanding, in this research the bending of twisted fibers will be addressed. In the next step, a novel effective damage monitoring tool would be developed to relate and quantify the void formation and local failures inside the fibers with the electrical responses of the CNT fibers.

 

Poster Number: CE-15

Title: Control of Post-Buckling Response of Non-Uniform Beams for Energy Harvesting Applications

Authors: Pengcheng Jiao; Wassim Borchani; Nizar Lajnef

Abstract: Buckling and post-buckling behaviors of elastic structural elements have been widely used to create mono-stable, bi-stable and multi-stable mechanisms that have shown a great efficiency in many applications such as sensing, actuation and energy harvesting. Under an increasing axial loading, the strain energy stored in a buckled bilaterally constrained elastica is suddenly released, through a snap-through transition, as a kinetic energy. These transitions can be used to convert low-rate and low-frequency excitations into high-rate motions that are converted into electrical signals using piezoelectric transducers. However, for efficient sensing and energy harvesting, buckling transition events have to be controlled. It has been shown that the spacing between the transitions cannot be controlled just by tuning the geometry properties of a slender beam with a uniform cross-section. This paper investigates the effect of different non-uniform cross section scenarios on the post-buckling response of a bilaterally constrained beam. An energy based theoretical model that takes into account variable non-uniform cross-sections is herein presented. The variation of the beam’s cross section area can either be continuous or piecewise continuous. The total potential energy of the system is minimized under constraints that represent the physical confinement of the beam between the lateral boundaries. Results demonstrate that the spacing ratio between buckling-mode transitions can be efficiently controlled by the beam’s shape and geometry dimensions. Different beam designs are presented in this work depending on the desired spacing ratio.

 

Poster Number: CE-16

Title: Hydrologic Modeling of Groundwater Recharge in the Ottawa County, Michigan

Authors: Guoting Kang; Phanikumar Mantha

Abstract: Groundwater plays an important role in Ottawa County’s agriculture, industry, public supply and domestic water use. However, various studies have shown that water levels in the aquifers have been declining, especially in the central region of Ottawa County. We have also detected the dry-up of many streams in Ottawa County in our fieldwork during summer of 2015. to better understand the water cycle in order to achieve sustainability in groundwater use in Ottawa County, we need to understand the groundwater recharge process, which requires knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability in groundwater recharge. While direct measurements of groundwater recharge on a regional scale is nearly impossible, this study uses a process-based hydrologic model, which integrates detailed representations of land surface and subsurface processes, to simulate groundwater recharge at high temporal and high spatial resolutions. The model was built based on three major watersheds, the Rabbit River and Macatawa River watersheds, and part of the Grand River watershed, covering the entire Ottawa County and was calibrated using streamflow data from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) gauging stations. In addition, synoptic and time-series streamflow data collected using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) through fieldwork in the summer of 2015, were used to validate and quantify the uncertainty of the model.

This work was supported in part by Ottawa County Water Resources Study - Phase II

 

Poster Number: CE-17

Title: Mechanics-Based Service-Life Prediction of Elastomeric Nano-Composites

Authors: Leila Kahlili; Roozbeh Dargazany

Abstract: Elastomeric nanocomposites (ENC) are widely used in tires, bearings, protective armors, etc. because of their light weight, corrosion resistance, and durability. to avoid risk of life, large safety factors are utilized in the design process. Considering that ENCs comprise 6% of the national waste in the U.S., accurate prediction of failure for ENC components would have a tremendous economic and environmental impact. Recently, the predictive modeling of damage mechanisms has progressed; nevertheless, these modeling efforts still remain fundamentally centered on a single-phenomenon, single-model approach where the models work individually. In the present work a platform will be designed that can host many models, integrate them into one framework that provides input for fatigue models of ENCs. The framework consists of a visco-elastic platform and several add-on modules. In order to construct a visco-elastic platform, the material matrix will be decomposed into a number of parallel networks, where each network describes a specific micro-mechanisms. For modeling the visco-elastic response of the matrix, a full-chain, temporary network model will be used in which each chain uses dynamic variables including location of each entanglement and the number of Kuhn steps in chain strands between entanglements.

 

Poster Number: CE-18

Title: Combined Effect of SBS and Recycled Tire Rubber (RTR) Modification on Performance Grade and Fatigue Cracking Resistance

Authors: Salih Kocak; M.Emin Kutay

Abstract: Polymer modification of asphalt binders has gained quite popularity in many transportation agencies, primarily due to the superior crack- and rut-resistant per-formance. However, added cost of polymer modification results in an apprecia-ble increase in the initial cost of an asphalt pavement. There are more economical and sustainable alternatives to polymers, such as the so-called “De-Vulcanized Rubber (DVR)”. Primary advantage of DVR technology is that, it is made from scrap tires and when mixed with asphalt binder, the particles completely dissolve within the binder. Therefore, the final product is a complete fluid, not a suspen-sion. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relative performanc-es of the SBS polymer and DVR in an asphalt binder. The impact of the modifi-cations on performance grade (PG) and fatigue cracking resistance was investigated. The results have shown that more sustainable modification of asphalt binders can be achieved by replacing the entire or some amount of SBS with DVR.

 

Poster Number: CE-19

Title: A Rational Design Approach for Evaluating Fire Resistance of Concrete Filled Hollow Steel Columns

Authors: V.K.R. Kodur; K. Ramya; K. Puneet

Abstract: Concrete filled steel tubular columns are widely used these days in the construction of framed structures. The two main reasons for this are, higher load bearing capacity and the fire resistance provided by those columns. The steel section protects the concrete from directly exposing to the fire and in turn the concrete filling delays the heating of steel as the heat from the steel is absorbed by the concrete. These columns do not need any fire protection externally (without compromising in fire safety). This makes the choice more economical and allows architects and engineers to design structures using exposed steel. Other benefits include the increased floor area, s smaller sections would serve the required purpose. In this work, the main aspect is to develop a rational approach to calculate the capacities of concrete filled steel sections at elevated temperatures with AISC approach. We have AISC approach for calculating the capacities at room temperature. Following that, developed an approach to calculate the capacities at elevated temperatures. Using this approach, analyzed various hollow steel sections with three different concrete infill (plain, reinforced and steel fiber reinforced concrete). As we have an established method in EURO Code to calculate the capacities at elevated temperatures, the results from the developed approach are compared with the results from EURO code method. The results from the developed approach seemed to be little conservative compared to that of EURO code method. And later, the developed approach is validated by comparison with experimental results.

 

Poster Number: CE-20

Title: Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Load Bearing Reinforced Concrete Walls Subjected to Fire Exposure

Authors: Puneet Kumar; V.K.R. Kodur

Abstract: Reinforced concrete (RC) load bearing walls are widely utilized in buildings due to the numerous advantages they offer in terms of high axial load carrying capacity, fire compartmentation, thermal and sound insulation, and high in-plane and out-of-plane stiffness. While structural performance of RC walls is investigated thoroughly, information related to fire performance of these walls is rather sparse in the literature. Fire resistance of these load bearing walls is mostly estimated through standard fire tests or prescriptive approaches, without any consideration to critical factors governing fire behavior. In order to overcome current knowledge gaps, a set of numerical studies is undertaken using a generic 3D finite element model. The model, developed using ANSYS, is capable of capturing fire behavior of walls for a wide range of variables such as: different fire scenarios, concrete types, member dimensions, cover thickness, load level, and support restraints. This validated model is utilized to perform a series of parametric studies to identify critical factors affecting fire behavior of these structures. Results from these parametric studies are utilized to propose a rational design approach, for performance based fire design of RC walls.

 

Poster Number: CE-21

Title: Investigation of Effect of Compaction Characteristics on Performance of Asphalt Mixtures

Authors: Yogesh Kumbargeri; Michele Lanotte; M. Emin Kutay

Abstract: Compaction is one of the major stages during flexible pavement construction that ensures strength and durability of asphalt pavements. Temperature and pressure are two vital factors that affect compaction. In cold climatic regions such as Michigan, there may be a large reduction in asphalt mix temperature during hauling of the mix from the asphalt plant to the paving site. Moreover, the different stages of compaction and the equipment used during the site operations have a significant effect on asphalt densification. The main goal of this study is to investigate the compaction temperature and pressure sensitivity of different asphalt mixtures during compaction and figure out their impact on the performance of the pavement structure. In order to examine the effect of the binder type, virgin and modified binders will be used in this study. The goal of this research study will be achieved by (i) compacting asphalt mixtures using the Superpave Gyratory Compactor (SGC) at different compaction temperatures and pressures, (ii) evaluating these asphalt mixtures with performance tests such as dynamic modulus, flow number and disk shaped compact tension test, (iii) ranking the different mixtures, temperatures and pressure with respect to performance and (iv) developing correlation models between compaction and performance characteristics of asphalt mixtures. It is envisioned that this study will provide important information for Quality Assurance/Quality Control procedures used during the asphalt road construction.

 

Poster Number: CE-22

Title: Feasibility of Quasi-Static Characterization Method for Dynamic Behavior of Liquid Nanofoam

Authors: Mingzhe Li; Weiyi Lu

Abstract: The mechanical behavior of liquid nanofoam (LN), a liquid suspension of nanoporous particles, at various strain rates has been experimentally investigated. First of all, the unique liquid infiltration behavior of a silica gel based LN is fully characterized by an Instron 5982 universal tester under quasi-static loading condition. Large amount of energy is dissipated into heat due to the effective excess solid-liquid interfacial tension. The energy absorption efficiency of the LN is determined by the liquid infiltration pressure and the total deformability. After that, the same LN is impacted by a lab-customized drop tower apparatus at intermediate strain rates (around 100 s-1). The measured strain-stress curves are highly hysteretic. In comparison with the quasi-static sorption isotherm curve, the liquid infiltration pressure as well as the total deformability of the LN are not affected by the increased strain rate. In other words, the dynamic behavior of LN can be characterized by quasi-static compressive tests. More importantly, under blunt impact and even real blast scenarios, the energy absorption capacity of LN can be activated at desired pressure range due to the strain rate independent liquid infiltration behavior. The ultra-fast energy dissipation rate must be attributed to the extremely large specific surface area of the nanoporous media and the significantly enhanced liquid flow speed in nanopores.

 

Poster Number: CE-23

Title: Elastic Postbuckling Response of Bilaterally Constrained Non-Prismatic Columns

Authors: Suihan Liu; Rigoberto Burgueño

Abstract: Axially loaded bilaterally constrained columns can attain multiple snap-through buckling events in their elastic postbuckling response for use as energy concentrators that transform external quasi-static displacement input to high-rate motions to excite vibration-based piezoelectric transducers. Regulation of the postbuckling behavior can lead to increased performance of the energy harvesting device. This study presents how stiffness variations along the column element lead to enhanced control of the noted elastic postbuckling response. Results from experiments and numerical simulations show that non-uniform stiffness designs are able to tailor the location and sequence of buckling events by creating a concentrated buckling region on the column. Compared to a uniform design, non-prismatic columns can attain a higher number of mode transitions under the same global strain level and also create local stress waves that propagate along the element due to the stiffness variations, which leads an enhanced kinetic energy generation during the postbuckling response. The presented results confirm that non-prismatic columns are a viable way to control the elastic post-buckling response of these device elements, thus providing more options to the use of 1D structural prototypes for exploiting their elastic instabilities as energy triggering mechanism for energy harvesters with improved efficiency and performance.

This work was supported in part by The presented work was carried out with support from the U.S. National Science Foundation under grant number ECCS-1408506.

 

Poster Number: CE-24

Title: Value-Added Use of Carbon Dioxide for Production of a New Class of Sustainable Hydraulic Cements

Authors: Faris Matalkah; Parviz Soroushian

Abstract: Production of Portland cement accounts for about 7% of carbon dioxide emissions and 4% of energy use worldwide. The Portland cement chemistry also lacks the versatility required for value-added use of broad categories of solid industrial wastes the chemistry of which is evolving in light of new of emission control requirements. This project employs an alternative inorganic binder chemistry for production of concrete. This binder chemistry, which relies upon hydrates and carbonates to render binding effects, offers the potential to significantly lower the carbon footprint and energy content of concrete. It is also highly robust, and can made value-added use of diverse industrial wastes which are not compatible with the chemistry of ordinary Portland cement. The project emphasizes value-added use of carbon dioxide for production of hydraulic cements of refined chemistry which compromise more than 80% waste and by-product raw materials. The resulting hydraulic cements incorporate carbonate anions in metastable forms, which transform into fine crystalline carbonates in the course of cement hydration. The integrated action of carbonates and hydrates is essential for meeting the standard performance requirements of hydraulic cements used in concrete production. This research project promises to yield a commercially viable approach to large-volume and value-added use of carbon dioxide. The hydraulic cements developed in the project offer significant performance, cost and sustainability advantages over ordinary Portland cement. A preliminary analysis concluded that the life-cycle cost, energy content and carbon footprint of the new hydraulic cements are, respectively, about 50%, 75% and 90% lower than those of Portland cement.

This work was supported in part by US Department of Energy, US Department of Agriculture, US Environmental Protection Agency

 

Poster Number: CE-25

Title: Comparative Behavior of Fire-Exposed Composite Girders Subjected to Flexural and Shear Loading

Authors: Mohannad Naser; Venkatesh Kodur

Abstract: This paper presents results from experimental studies on the comparative behavior of fire exposed composite steel girders subjected to flexural and shear loading. Three composite girders, comprising of steel girders and concrete slab, were tested under simultaneous structural loading and fire exposure. The main test variables are type and magnitude of loading, as well as level of composite action. The composite girder, mainly subjected to flexural loading, failed through flexural yielding of steel girder without any signs of shear failure. On the other hand, girders with shear loading failed in shear through shear web buckling early into fire exposure. A comparative performance evaluation of response parameters clearly shows that shear limit state should be considered when evaluating behavior of fire exposed composite girders.

This work was supported in part by National Science Foundation

 

Poster Number: CE-26

Title: Analysis of Water Quality, Water Scarcity and Leading Factors to Using Contaminated Water Sources in Rural Communities

Authors: Tula Ngasala; Susan Masten; Phanikumar Mantha

Abstract: Water scarcity and poor water quality are major challenges facing many rural areas where agriculture and livestock keeping are their main activities. Surface and groundwater sources are highly polluted due to poor water resource management and lack of modern agricultural practices. Families’ well-being are being affected due to poor access to water sources, seasonal availability and their economic status. The water quality of surface, shallow wells and deep wells in Naitolia Village, Arusha, Tanzania was determined to identify the extent of contamination. Water Quality Index (WQI) for pH, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and turbidity was used to show the overall water quality for each water source. Households were surveyed to identify factors that contribute to poor access and reliability to water sources. Results showed the maximum contaminant levels from all water sources exceeded W.H.O standards. Surface water, shallow wells and deep wells had the WQI of 1973, 833 and 58 respectively (<50-excellent, >300-very poor). Survey responses showed that more than 80% of this community use water sources that are highly contaminated, less than 19% of the population have access to deep wells. Although deep wells are the least contaminated, after considering other factors such as distance to water sources, economic status, seasonal availability and water quality, it was found that, in terms of access and quantity, boreholes were the least reliable,shallow wells were the most reliable followed by surface water. Improving the existing water resources is one of the sustainable solutions to improve health and well-being of families of Naitolia

 

Poster Number: CE-27

Title: Development of an Acceptance Test for Chip Seal Project

Authors: Ugurcan Ozdemir; M. Emin Kutay

Abstract: Chip seal is one of the most popular preventive maintenance techniques performed by many DOTs, county road departments and cities. The procedure involves binder application (emulsion asphalts, or sometimes cutback asphalts) on the surface of a deteriorated pavement, followed by spreading aggregates, compaction, curing and discarding loose aggregates by sweeping via rotary power brooms, respectively. One of the most important parameters affecting performance of chip seal is percent aggregate embedment depth into the binder. Depending on the percent embedment depth of chip seal samples, asphalt chip seals are susceptible to distresses such as aggregate chip loss and bleeding. Asphalt chip seals having the embedment depth less than 50% are usually more susceptible to aggregate loss due to insufficient bonding between binder and aggregate; whereas, asphalt chip seals having the aggregate embedment higher than 70% may lead to bleeding problems on the surface of the pavement. The main goal of this study was to develop a standard test procedure to directly calculate aggregate embedment depth in asphalt chip seal treatment via digital image analysis. Two image based algorithms were developed to calculate embedment depth, and another algorithm was developed to compute aggregate surface coverage area with binder. The statistical analysis results indicated that there is a good correlation between embedment depth obtained from image-based algorithm and sand patch test results. It was observed that binder application rate range specified in MDOT’s specification ensured to keep percent embedment range between about 50% and 70% which is desired range for not having distresses.

This work was supported in part by University Transportation Center for Highway Pavement Preservation, Michigan Department of Transportation

 

Poster Number: CE-28

Title: Freezing and Thawing of Frost-Susceptible Soils (Development of a Reliable Predictive Model)

Authors: Pegah Rajaei; Gilbert Baladi

Abstract: Frost depth is an essential factor in design of various transportation infrastructures. In frost susceptible soils, as soils freezes, water migrates through the soil voids below the freezing line towards the freezing front and causes excessive heave. The excessive heave can cause instability issues in the structure, therefore predicting the frost depth and resulting frost heave accurately can play a major role in the design. On the other hand, as the spring begins the pavement starts to thaw from the top down and to a lesser extend from the bottom up. During this period, the pavement is in a critical condition where the upper and lower layers are thawed but the layer in between is frozen, acts as an impermeable layer and makes the water trapped in the system and the soil layer saturated. The stiffness and load bearing capacity of the saturated layer decrease considerably and cause premature deformations. This phenomenon occurs particularly in low volume roads. Spring load restrictions (SLR) are usually placed as preservation strategies. The objectives of this study were to develop accurate and reliable models for predicting frost and thaw depths and frost heave, to estimate the resulting heave pressure and to develop a model for estimating the SLR implementation period.

This work was supported in part by Michigan Department of Transportation

 

Poster Number: CE-29

Title: Pavement Surface Characterization for Optimization of Trade-Off Between Grip and Rolling Resistance

Authors: Shabnam Rajaei; Roozbeh Dargazany; Karim Chatti

Abstract: Understanding the interaction between pavement and tire surfaces is of great importance since it can improve the perception of friction, rolling resistance, wear, interior and exterior noise, splash and spray and thermal conductance between these surfaces. Friction plays an important role in vehicle safety while rolling resistance can affect fuel consumption of the vehicle. Several factors influence these two phenomena, which in this study the effect of tire properties and pavement surface characteristics are taken into account. An optimal method will be demonstrated to characterize the surface properties that yield the least rolling resistance without sacrificing grip in the process. Experimental studies will be done for obtaining comprehensive measurements of different sets of surface texture (from micro-texture to unevenness), their rolling resistance and friction.

This work was supported in part by Center for Highway Pavement Preservation

 

Poster Number: CE-30

Title: A Pattern Recognition Approach Based on Image Data Analysis for Structural Damage Detection with Discrete Binary Data

Authors: Hadi Salehi; Saptarshi Das; Shantanu Chakrabartty; Subir Biswas; Rigoberto Burgueño

Abstract: A continuing challenge in structural health monitoring (SHM) is power availability for sensors to collect and communicate data. While self-powered sensors are addressing some concerns, the harvested power with current technology is still limited, and improving the network efficiency requires reducing the power budget. A way to minimize the communication power demand is to transmit the minimum amount of information, namely one bit. The binary signal can be generated at a sensor node according to a local rule based on physical measurements, but interpretation at the global level requires dealing with discrete binary (1 or 0) data, which implies system information with reduced resolution. This study presents an approach for the interpretation of such kind of binary data for use in structural assessment and damage identification. The approach was established upon the simulation of the discrete binary data generated from self-powered wireless sensors. Finite element simulation was used to generate the virtual data. A data interpretation system using pattern recognition (PR) along with a conditional probability chain that takes into account the effect of time delay on the data was developed for damage detection. The performance and efficiency of the proposed approach was evaluated and tested for the case of a simply supported aluminum plate under distributed harmonic loading. Results demonstrate good performance of the proposed method and the applicability of PR methods as a promising damage identification algorithm for binary data sets in novel self-powered wireless sensor networks.

This work was supported in part by National Science Foundation

 

Poster Number: CE-31

Title: Characterizing Properties of Ultra High Performance Concrete (UHPC) at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Mahmood Ahmad Sarwar; Venkatesh Kodur

Abstract: Concrete is one of the most widely used material in construction applications. Newer types of concrete are being developed to improve the performance and durability properties and explore environmentally friendly considerations. The most recent version of concrete is ultra high performance concrete (UHPC). Due to the high tensile strength that can be attained with UHPC, it is increasingly used in infrastructure applications. For use in building applications these concretes have to satisfy fire resistance requirements for which high temperature mechanical properties of UHPC is critical. However, data pertaining to UHPC’s properties at elevated temperatures is quite limited. Therefore compressive strength of UHPC at elevated temperatures are studied as part of a new research project at Michigan State University. A total of twenty-seven compressive strength tests of varying types of concrete (of which nine are UHPC), will be conducted at temperatures varying from twenty to eight-hundred degrees Celsius. Thus far, six UHPC tests have been conducted (temperatures ranging from twenty to four-hundred degrees Celsius) and their corresponding data has been compared to past research pertaining to normal strength concrete (NSC). Results from these tests will be used to propose a relation for compressive strength of UHPC as a function of temperature.

 

Poster Number: CE-32

Title: Development of a Continental-Scale Land Hydrology Model with Human Impacts for North America

Authors: Sanghoon Shin; Yadu Pokhrel

Abstract: Water resources sustainability has been threatened by increasing water demands and changing supplies due to climate change. In order to accurately predict water resources availability, it is important to assess the anthropogenic effects due to land-water management, which are the major drivers of water cycle change in many regions. In this study, an integrated continental-scale land hydrology model named Leaf-Hydro-Flood (LHF) model (Pokhrel et al., 2013) is used to simulate the natural and human-induced changes of water flows and storages over North America. We use two versions of LHF model: one with and the other without human water use. The model is tested for river flows over a range of basin scales across the United States, and the human impact on water resources is assessed by comparing the model results with a synthesis of ground- and satellite-based observations. We also present the available detailed hydrological data in the United States, and our approach to integrate them into the model and to improve modeling schemes.

 

Poster Number: CE-33

Title: Multi-Gene Genetic Programming Approach for the Prediction of Crumb Rubber Modified (CRM) Binder Viscosity

Authors: Sepehr Soleimani; Michele A. Lanotte; M. Emin Kutay

Abstract: Adding crumb rubber to asphalt binder results in an instantaneous and delayed variation of the modified binder viscosity during the production process. Although several studies have been carried out in this area, behavioral characterization of CRM binder viscosity is a challenging task because this phenomenon is influenced by several parameters and needs cumbersome lab efforts. In this study, a multi-gene genetic programming (MGGP) approach is proposed for the prediction of the CRM binder viscosity. The main goal is to formulate the viscosity of the CRM binder in terms of the gradation and surface area of rubber particles, rubber content, density, as well as mixing time and temperature. Analyses were first carried out on crumb rubber products derived from ambient and cryogenic size-reduction processes, then viscosity tests were performed at a given shear rate and temperature, on CRM binders produced in laboratory in a wide range of mixing time and temperature. The results indicate that the MGGP models have a superb accuracy and efficiency especially when compared against linear regression models. The contribution of each parameter is evaluated through a sensitivity analysis. Moreover, a parametric study is performed to investigate the effect of each parameter on the response. The model and the parametric study proved to be in agreement with the interaction phenomena which occur within the production process of asphalt rubber binders.

 

Poster Number: CE-34

Title: Flexural Behavior of Ultra High Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Roya Solhmirzaei; Venkatesh Kodur

Abstract: Ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete (UHPFRC), is an emerging class of cementitious materials offering very high compressive and tensile strength, improved durability and ductility properties. Being a relatively new construction material, there is limited data on response of structural members fabricated using UHPFRC. to generate such data, six reinforced UHPFRC beams were fabricated for testing under flexural loading. Two beams were tested under four point bending test. Flexural behavior of beams, including crack propagation, load deflection response, failure patterns, and flexural capacity were traced. Finally, a simplified approach based on sectional analysis and strain compatibility principles was applied to derive moment-curvature response of UHPFRC beams. This approach takes into consideration the high tensile strength and tension softening effect in evaluating moment-curvature response of UHPFRC beams. Material models suggested in literature, based on experimental tests, were used in analytical predictions. This approach is validated against test data published in literature and subsequently utilized to predict the ultimate capacity of reinforced UHPFRC beams fabricated as part of this study. The experimental and analytical studies carried out in this study will help to establish fundamental principles governing flexural and shear response of UHPFRC beams.

 

Poster Number: CE-35

Title: Prediction of Pedestrian Crashes at Midblock Crossing Areas Using Site and Behavioral Characteristics

Authors: Steven Stapleton; Timothy Gates

Abstract: Safety performance functions (SPFs) provide a promising approach for estimating the number of pedestrian crashes at midblock crossing facilities. Research is limited in terms of disaggregate-level studies considering the effects of motor vehicle/bicycle/pedestrian volumes, roadway geometry, and other factors on pedestrian crashes, due in large part to the relative infrequency at which such crashes occur. This study addresses this shortfall by observing motorist and pedestrian behavior at crosswalks. Data were collected at more than 30 midblock crossing locations within Detroit, East Lansing and Kalamazoo. The sites were selected to provide a broad range of road user volumes and geometric characteristics as well as a variety of crossing facilities, including crossings with no additional treatment, rectangular rapid flashing beacons, pedestrian hybrid beacons, and in-street pedestrian crossing signs in order to identify the effects of the various behavioral, exposure, and geometric characteristics on traffic crashes. Data collected for each site include behavior of drivers upon encountering a crossing pedestrian, evasive actions taken by the road users or pedestrians during such encounters, motor vehicle volumes, pedestrian crossing volumes, existing traffic control devices, and cross-sectional characteristics of the roadway. Traffic crash data are also being compiled for each location. The data are currently being prepared for integration with the SPF development to examine how the effects of these variables affect safety performance along urban roadways.

This work was supported in part by FHWA

 

Poster Number: CE-36

Title: Thermal, Electrical and Structural Behavior of ‘Reversible Bonded’ Composite Joints

Authors: Suhail Hyder Vattathurvalappil; Mahmoodul Haq; Ermias G. Koricho; Lawrence T. Drzal

Abstract: Adhesively bonded joints offer the best route for light-weighting by eliminating holes, fasteners and associated stress concentrations. However, conventional thermoset-bonded joints are ‘single-cure,’ and cannot be dis-assembled or repaired. Thermoplastic adhesives modified by conductive nanoparticles allow coupling with electromagnetic radiations via non-contact methods, and increase the adhesive temperature to the required processing temperatures to assemble and disassemble the resulting joints. In this work, thermoplastic adhesives (polycarbonate) reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets (GnP) and ferromagnetic nanoparticles (FMnP) were developed to study the reversible bonding behavior of glass-fiber reinforced composite substrates under microwave electromagnetic radiation. Varying concentrations of GnP and FMnp were embedded in thermoplastic adhesives to investigate the thermal, electrical, and mechanical behavior of the adhesives and the resulting adhesively bonded joints. Numerical homogenization was also performed using mean-field approach to predict the GnP/FMnP modified adhesive mechanical properties. Results indicate that depending on the amount of GnP/FMnP contents, the thermal, electrical, and mechanical properties of the adhesives were significantly varied. Results also showed that the numerical prediction of effective modulus in the linear elastic regime agreed well with experimental findings. Overall, active adhesives such as those attempted in this work have a great potential in a wide range of applications wherein in-situ repair, re-assembly and recyclability are essential. Experimentally validated numerical simulations are also essential to aid the development of highly tailorable ‘reversible adhesives’ and to fully exploit the benefits they offer.

This work was supported in part by Department of Energy


Poster Number: CE-37

Title: Impacts of Maintenance treatments on the Life Cycle Pavement Condition and Distress of the LTPP SPS-3 Test Sections

Authors: Gopikrishna Musunuru; Gilbert Baladi

Abstract: One of the objectives of the Long-Term Pavement Performance (LTPP) Specific Pavement Studies (SPS)-3 experiment is to examine the effectiveness of maintenance treatments on the performance of flexible pavements compared to the performance of untreated control sections. The applied maintenance treatments include slurry seal, chip seal, crack seal, and thin overlay. In a research study sponsored by the LTPP program of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), the impacts of these maintenance treatments on the functional and structural performance of the flexible pavement test sections of the SPS-3 experiment were analyzed. The analyses of the functional performance was based on ride quality using the International Roughness Index (IRI) and safety (rut depth). While analyses of the structural performance was based on the pavement alligator, transverse, and longitudinal cracking and on rut depths. For each SPS-3 test section, the functional performance is represented by the Remaining Functional Period (RFP) and the structural performance by the Remaining Structural Period (RSP). Both metrics, the RFP and the RSP, were developed in this study to rate the performance of flexible, rigid, and composite pavement sections. This paper presents and discusses the results of the analyses of the performance of the SPS-3 test sections. It is shown that, as expected, after treatment pavement performance is a function of the before treatment condition or distress. The thin overlay treatment was most effective and improved the pavement performance relative to IRI and rut depth but did not improve the pavement performance relative to alligator, longitudinal, and transverse cracking.

This work was supported in part by Federal Highway Administration